Larceny User Manual


Table of Contents

1. Larceny
2. Installing Larceny
2.1. Varieties of Larceny
2.2. System requirements
2.3. Downloading
2.4. Installing the programs
2.5. Compiling the R7RS/R6RS standard libraries
3. Running Larceny
3.1. R5RS mode
3.2. R6RS mode
3.3. R7RS mode
3.4. Scheme scripts
3.5. R5RS scripting
3.6. Errors
3.7. Troubleshooting
3.8. Performance
4. Lexical syntax
4.1. Flags
4.2. Case-sensitivity
4.3. Lexical extensions
4.4. Lexical parameters
5. File naming conventions
5.1. Suffixes
5.2. Directories
5.3. Resolving references to libraries
5.4. Mapping library names to files (R7RS/R6RS)
5.5. Mapping library names to files (R5RS)
6. Compiling files and libraries
6.1. Compiling R7RS/R6RS libraries
6.2. Compiling R5RS source files
7. R7RS standard libraries
7.1. Known deviations from the R7RS standard
8. R6RS standard libraries
8.1. Base library
8.2. Unicode
8.3. Bytevectors
8.4. Lists
8.5. Sorting
8.6. Control
8.7. Records
8.8. Exceptions and conditions
8.9. Input and output
8.10. Programs
8.11. Arithmetic
8.12. Syntax-case
8.13. Hashtables
8.14. Enumeration sets
8.15. Eval
8.16. Mutable pairs and strings
8.17. R5RS
9. Larceny's R7RS/R6RS libraries
9.1. Load
9.2. Compiler
9.3. Benchmarking
9.4. Records printer
10. ERR5RS standard libraries
10.1. Load
10.2. Records
11. Larceny's R5RS libraries
11.1. Strings
11.2. Bytevectors
11.3. Vectors
11.4. Procedures
11.5. Pairs and Lists
11.6. Sorting
11.7. Records
11.8. Input, Output, and Files
11.9. Operating System Interface
11.10. Fixnum primitives
11.11. Numbers
11.12. Hashtables and hash functions
11.13. Parameters
11.14. Property Lists
11.15. Symbols
11.16. System Control and Performance Measurement
11.17. SRFI Support
11.18. SLIB support
11.19. Foreign-Function Interface to C
12. Debugging
12.1. Entering the debugger
12.2. Debugger commands
12.3. Breakpoints
12.4. Tracing
12.5. Other functionality
13. Standards
13.1. Scheme standards
13.2. Other relevant standards
Index

1. Larceny

Larceny implements the Scheme programming language as defined by the Revised7 Report, the Revised6 Report, the Revised5 Report, and IEEE Standard 1178-1990. Those language standards serve as Larceny's primary documentation.

This manual describes aspects of Larceny that are not described by the Revised Reports or IEEE-1178. For the most current version of this manual, please see Larceny's online documentation page. For links to the Common Larceny User Manual and the Larceny mailing list, please visit Larceny's main web page.

To report bugs, please send email to the Larceny developers at <larceny@ccs.neu.edu>, or submit a bug ticket at Larceny's GitHub site.

2. Installing Larceny

2.1. Varieties of Larceny

There are two main varieties of Larceny.

Native Larceny is the fastest and most convenient variety of Larceny. It compiles directly to native machine code for Intel x86 microprocessors running Linux, Apple OS X, or Windows operating systems.

Petit Larceny compiles to C instead of machine code. It can be made to run on most Unix machines.

2.2. System requirements

Binary distributions of native Larceny are available for just about any Intel x86-compatible microprocessor running a Linux, Apple OS X, or Windows operating system. Although Larceny still uses 32-bit pointers, it will run on 64-bit machines provided the appropriate 32-bit libraries have been installed.

Binary distributions of Petit Larceny are available for x86 machines running Linux. Petit Larceny requires the gcc compiler as well as the appropriate 32-bit libraries.

For more details, see doc/HOWTO-INSTALL. If you want to build Larceny or Petit Larceny from source code, see doc/HOWTO-BUILD.

2.3. Downloading

The current versions of Larceny are available for download at Larceny's main web page.

Larceny is distributed in two forms: as a precompiled binary, or as source code that can be used to reconstruct any of the precompiled binary distributions. Unless you intend to modify Larceny yourself, you do not need to download the source code.

2.4. Installing the programs

Unpack the distribution files with an appropriate command such as one of the following, substituting the version number (such as 0.98) for "X.Y":

tar -xzf larceny-X.Y-bin-native-ia32-linux86.tar.gz
tar -xzf larceny-X.Y-bin-native-ia32-macosx.tar.gz
tar -xzf larceny-X.Y-bin-native-ia32-win32.tar.gz
tar -xzf larceny-X.Y-bin-petit-stdc-macosx.tar.gz
tar -xzf larceny-X.Y-src.tar.gz

That will create a directory with a similar name (but without the .tar.gz suffix) in your current working directory. That is the Larceny root directory, which you may rename to something shorter, such as larceny; the rest of this section will refer to it by that name.

Assuming you have unpacked a binary distribution for Linux or OS X, the larceny directory will contain the following files:

larceny.bin         Run-time system
larceny.heap        Heap image with preloaded libraries and compiler
larceny             Shell script that runs the two files listed above
scheme-script       Shell script that runs Scheme scripts
compile-stale       Scheme script that compiles R7RS/R6RS libraries
startup.sch         Pathnames for the autoload and require features

If you unpacked a binary distribution, then you should be able to run it immediately by making the larceny directory your current working directory and invoking ./larceny. (If that does not work, you may need to install some 32-bit libraries on your machine. See doc/HOWTO-INSTALL.)

Binary distributions for Windows will include a larceny.bat file in addition to the files listed above, so you can run Larceny by invoking larceny. (If that does not work, you may need to tell the DEP feature to let Larceny opt out.)

If you unpacked the source code there will be many other files and directories, but larceny.bin and larceny.heap will not be present.

Tip

You can reconstruct the larceny.bin and larceny.heap files from their source code, but that process requires a working version of Larceny. Unless you're porting Larceny or Petit Larceny to a brand new target architecture, it's easier to obtain those files from a binary distribution of Larceny.

You may add the larceny directory to your standard path, or you may install Larceny into a directory that is already part of your standard path.

Suppose, for example, that you want to install Larceny in /usr/local/bin and /usr/local/lib/larceny. Copy the larceny and scheme-script files to /usr/local/bin and edit the definition of LARCENY_ROOT at the head of each file to point to the correct directory:

LARCENY_ROOT=/usr/local/lib/larceny

Then move the entire larceny directory to /usr/local/lib/larceny.

You should now be able to run Larceny from any directory by typing "larceny" at a prompt.

2.5. Compiling the R7RS/R6RS standard libraries

If you are installing Petit Larceny, then you will have to compile the R7RS/R6RS runtime and standard libraries before you can run Larceny in R7RS or R6RS modes.

This step is also required if you are building any variety of Larceny from source code. With the prebuilt native varieties of Larceny, however, this step should not be necessary unless you change one of the files in lib/R7RS, lib/R6RS, or lib/SRFI.

Tip

If the lib/R7RS, lib/R6RS, and lib/SRFI directories are read-only, you will be less likely to touch, modify, or compile the standard libraries by accident.

Compiling the R7RS/R6RS runtime and standard libraries is accomplished as follows:

    $ ./larceny
    Larceny v0.98 "General Ripper" (...)
    > (require 'r7rsmode)
    > (larceny:compile-r7rs-runtime)
    > (exit)

Warning

Compiling the R7RS/R6RS runtime as shown above causes all previously compiled R7RS/R6RS libraries and top-level programs to become stale. That means those previously compiled files will need to be recompiled or removed.

3. Running Larceny

Larceny can run in any of these distinct modes:

R5RS              traditional read/eval/print loop (the default)
R6RS              batch execution of R6RS top-level programs
R7RS              R7RS read/eval/print loop or batch execution
Scheme script     batch execution of R7RS/R6RS Scheme scripts

R5RS mode extends the Scheme language described by the R5RS and IEEE/ANSI Std 1178 by adding R7RS/R6RS lexical syntax and most of the procedures described by the newer R6RS and R7RS standards.

R6RS mode is largely redundant with Larceny's R7RS mode (because every reasonable R6RS library and program could just as well be executed in R7RS mode). There is only one difference between those two modes: R6RS mode enforces the R6RS mandates that, among other things, forbid read/eval/print loops and most extensions to R6RS lexical syntax.

R7RS mode will accept any combination of R7RS and R6RS libraries and programs. In Larceny, R6RS Scheme becomes a proper subset of R7RS Scheme.

Scheme scripts are directly executable R7RS/R6RS programs.

3.1. R5RS mode

When you start Larceny in R5RS mode (the default), you will be presented with a banner message and the read-eval-print loop's prompt:

    % larceny
    Larceny vX.Y "<version_name>" (MMM DD YYYY HH:MM:SS, ...)
    larceny.heap, built ...

    >

You can enter a Scheme expression at the prompt. After a complete expression has been read, it will be evaluated and its results printed.

Note

In native Larceny, the expression is evaluated by compiling it to native machine code, which is then executed. In Petit Larceny, the expression is evaluated by an interpreter because compiling to C, running the C compiler, and loading the compiled C code would take too long. Interpreted code behaves like compiled code, so most of what this manual says about the compiler is also true of Petit Larceny's interpreter.

3.2. R6RS mode

To execute a top-level R6RS program that is contained within a file named pgm, type:

    larceny -r6rs -program pgm

The -program option can be omitted, in which case Larceny will read the top-level program from standard input:

    larceny -r6rs < pgm

If you omit the -program option and do not redirect standard input, then Larceny will wait patiently for you to type a complete top-level program into standard input, terminating it with an end-of-file.

You probably don't want to do that. Had you wanted to type R6RS code at Larceny, you'd be using Larceny's R7RS read/eval/print loop instead.

3.3. R7RS mode

To execute a top-level R7RS/R6RS program that is contained within a file named pgm, type:

    larceny -r7rs -program pgm

To interact with Larceny's R7RS read/eval/print loop, omit the -program option:

    % larceny -r7rs
    Larceny v0.98 "General Ripper" (...)

The (scheme base) library has already been imported, but you may want to import other libraries as well. For example:

    > (import (scheme read)
              (scheme write)
              (scheme file)
              (scheme cxr)
              (scheme inexact)
              (scheme complex)
              (scheme char)
              (scheme load))

If you'd rather have Larceny import all of the standard R7RS and R6RS libraries at startup, along with a few Larceny-specific procedures, you can use the -r7r6 option instead of r7rs:

    % larceny -r7r6
    Larceny v0.98 "General Ripper" (...)

Using the -r7r6 option is equivalent to using the -r7rs option and then importing the (larceny r7r6) library.

Note

One name conflict could not be resolved by adding R7RS extensions to the conflicting R6RS procedure or syntax. When the -r7r6 option is used, the bytevector-copy! procedure is imported with R7RS semantics, and the older R6RS version of that procedure is renamed to r6rs:bytevector-copy!.

The features procedure will return a list of all cond-expand features and libraries available to you. That procedure reads the source code for all library files found in your current Larceny library path, so don't be surprised if it takes a few seconds.

    > (features)
    (r7rs r6rs larceny larceny-0.98
     exact-closed ratios exact-complex complex ieee-float
     full-unicode full-unicode-strings unicode-7
     posix unix gnu-linux i386 ilp32 little-endian
     ...
     (rnrs arithmetic bitwise (6))
     (rnrs arithmetic fixnums (6))
     (rnrs arithmetic flonums (6))
     (rnrs bytevectors (6))
     ...
     (rnrs (6))
     (scheme base)
     (scheme case-lambda)
     (scheme char)
     (scheme complex)
     (scheme cxr)
     (scheme eval)
     (scheme file)
     (scheme inexact)
     (scheme lazy)
     (scheme load)
     (scheme process-context)
     (scheme r5rs)
     (scheme read)
     (scheme repl)
     (scheme time)
     (scheme write)
     (srfi 1)
     (srfi 1 lists)
     ...)

3.3.1. Automatic loading

As an extension to the R7RS and R6RS, Larceny attempts to load libraries automatically when they are first imported. Autoloading makes interactive development and separate compilation much more convenient.

All of Larceny's predefined libraries can be autoloaded.

To enable autoloading of other R7RS/R6RS libraries, including libraries you've written yourself, you can:

3.3.2. Explicit loading

Larceny automatically loads R7RS/R6RS libraries when they are first imported. This is usually the most convenient way to load a library, but autoloading can't be used to load a top-level program. Explicit loading is needed for top-level programs, for libraries that don't reside in Larceny's current-require-path, and for libraries that are defined in files whose names do not follow Larceny's standard naming conventions.

In theory, explicit loading is the only portable way for R7RS programs to load a library. There is no portable way for R6RS programs to load or import libraries, so R6RS programs must rely upon implementation-specific mechanisms such as Larceny's autoloading.

For explicit loading of nonstandard libraries, top-level programs, or unadorned R5RS-style code from a file, you must first import a suitable load procedure:

    > (import (scheme load))

Loading a library does not automatically import it. To use the variables and syntax that are exported by a library, you must import that library explicitly:

    > (load "lib/R6RS/larceny/benchmarking.sls")
    > (import (larceny benchmarking))
    > (time (vector-for-each + (make-vector 1000000 0)))
    Words allocated: 3053286
    Elapsed time...: 25 ms (User: 25 ms; System: 0 ms)
    Elapsed GC time: 3 ms (CPU: 2 in 2 collections (1 minor).)

In Larceny, you may omit the call to load because the (larceny benchmarking) library will be autoloaded when it is imported. In other implementations of the R7RS, you may have to load all of the nonstandard libraries that will be imported by a top-level program or library before you load that top-level program or library.

3.3.3. Predefined libraries

Larceny predefines several nonstandard libraries in addition to the standard R7RS and R6RS libraries, and autoloads them for your convenience. The predefined, autoloadable libraries include:

Composite library:

(larceny r7r6)                         ; all R7RS/R6RS standard libraries

R7RS standard libraries:

(scheme base)
(scheme case-lambda)
(scheme char)
(scheme complex)
(scheme cxr)
(scheme eval)
(scheme file)
(scheme inexact)
(scheme lazy)
(scheme load)
(scheme process-context)
(scheme r5rs)
(scheme read)
(scheme repl)
(scheme time)
(scheme write)

R6RS standard libraries:

(rnrs base (6))                        ; R6RS chapter 9
(rnrs unicode (6))                     ; R6RS library chapter 1
(rnrs bytevectors (6))                 ; R6RS library chapter 2
(rnrs lists (6))                       ; R6RS library chapter 3
(rnrs sorting (6))                     ; R6RS library chapter 4
(rnrs control (6))                     ; R6RS library chapter 5
(rnrs exceptions (6))                  ; R6RS library section 7.1
(rnrs conditions (6))                  ; R6RS library sections 7.2 and 7.3
(rnrs io ports (6))                    ; R6RS library sections 8.1 and 8.2
(rnrs io simple (6))                   ; R6RS library sections 8.1 and 8.3
(rnrs files (6))                       ; R6RS library chapter 9
(rnrs programs (6))                    ; R6RS library chapter 10
(rnrs arithmetic fixnums (6))          ; R6RS library section 11.2
(rnrs arithmetic flonums (6))          ; R6RS library section 11.3
(rnrs arithmetic bitwise (6))          ; R6RS library section 11.4
(rnrs syntax-case (6))                 ; R6RS library chapter 12
(rnrs hashtables (6))                  ; R6RS library chapter 13
(rnrs enums)                           ; R6RS library chapter 14
(rnrs (6))                             ; R6RS library chapter 15
(rnrs eval (6))                        ; R6RS library chapter 16
(rnrs mutable-pairs (6))               ; R6RS library chapter 17
(rnrs mutable-strings (6))             ; R6RS library chapter 18
(rnrs r5rs (6))                        ; R6RS library chapter 19

R6RS standard libraries that are autoloadable but deprecated in Larceny because they have been superseded by the R7RS and SRFI 99 record facilities:

(rnrs records procedural (6))          ; R6RS library section 6.3
(rnrs records inspection (6))          ; R6RS library section 6.4
(rnrs records syntactic (6))           ; R6RS library section 6.2

SRFI libraries:

(srfi 1 lists)                         ; list library
(srfi 2 and-let*)                      ; extended `and` and `let*`
(srfi 5 let)                           ; extended version of `let`
(srfi 6 basic-string-ports)            ; basic string ports
(srfi 8 receive)                       ; binding to multiple values
(srfi 9 records)                       ; defining record types
(srfi 11 let-values)                   ; syntax for multiple values
(srfi 13 strings)                      ; string libraries
(srfi 14 char-sets)                    ; character-set library (default)
(srfi 14 unicode)                      ;   for all Unicode characters
(srfi 14 bmp)                          ;   for the Basic Multilingual Plane
(srfi 14 latin-1)                      ;   for ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1)
(srfi 16 case-lambda)                  ; syntax for variable arity
(srfi 17 generalized-set!)             ; generalized set!
(srfi 19 time)                         ; time data types and procedures
(srfi 23 error)                        ; error reporting mechanism
(srfi 25 multi-dimensional-arrays)     ; multi-dimensional array primitives
(srfi 26 cut)                          ; specializing without currying
(srfi 27 random-bits)                  ; sources of random bits
(srfi 28 basic-format-strings)         ; basic format strings
(srfi 29 localization)                 ; localization
(srfi 31 rec)                          ; `rec` syntax
(srfi 37)                              ; program argument processor
(srfi 38 with-shared-structure)        ; i/o for data with shared structure
(srfi 39 parameters)                   ; parameter objects
(srfi 41 streams)                      ; streams
(srfi 42 eager-comprehensions)         ; eager comprehensions
(srfi 43 vectors)                      ; vector library
(srfi 45 lazy)                         ; iterative lazy algorithms
(srfi 48 intermediate-format-strings)  ; format
(srfi 51 rest-values)                  ; rest values hackery
(srfi 54 cat)                          ; still more formatting
(srfi 59 vicinities)                   ; vicinity
(srfi 61 cond)                         ; a more general cond clause
(srfi 63 arrays)                       ; homogeneous, heterogeneous arrays
(srfi 64 testing)                      ; an API for test suites
(srfi 67 compare-procedures)           ; three-way comparison procedures
(srfi 78 lightweight-testing)          ; lightweight testing
(srfi 87 case)                         ; a more general case clause
(srfi 98 os-environment-variables)     ; environment variables
(srfi 99 records)                      ; (composite library)
(srfi 99 records procedural)           ; (procedural API)
(srfi 99 records inspection)           ; (inspection API)
(srfi 99 records syntactic)            ; (syntactic API)
(srfi 101 random-access-lists)         ; fast and purely functional lists
(srfi 111 boxes)                       ; boxes
(srfi 112)                             ; environment inquiry
(srfi 113 sets)                        ; sets and bags
(srfi 114 comparators)                 ; comparators
(srfi 115 regexp)                      ; regular expressions
(srfi 116 ilists)                      ; immutable lists

Note

For backward compatibility, (srfi 1 lists) through (srfi 101 random-access-lists) are also available with the SRFI 97 naming convention in which the number is preceded by a colon, as in (srfi :1 lists). With the more liberal R7RS syntax, that SRFI 97 naming convention is now unnecessary. Larceny has extended the R6RS library syntax to allow R6RS libraries to import R7RS libraries that follow the R7RS naming convention shown in the list above.

SRFI libraries that are autoloadable but deprecated in Larceny, usually because they have been superseded in whole or in part by R7RS or R6RS libraries or syntax (shown in parentheses):

(srfi 0)                               ; cond-expand (scheme base)
(srfi 30)                              ; nested multi-line comments (#| |#)
(srfi 34)                              ; exception handling (scheme base)
(srfi 55)                              ; require-extension (import)
(srfi 60 integer-bits)                 ; see (rnrs arithmetic bitwise)
(srfi 62)                              ; S-expression comments ( #; )
(srfi 66 octet-vectors)                ; octet vectors (scheme base)
(srfi 69 basic-hash-tables)            ; hash tables (rnrs hashtables)
(srfi 71 let)                          ; extensions of let, let*, letrec
(srfi 74 blobs)                        ; see (rnrs bytevectors)
(srfi 95 sorting-and-merging)          ; sorting and merging (rnrs sorting)

ERR5RS libraries that are autoloadable but deprecated in Larceny because they have been superseded by the R7RS and SRFI 99 record facilities:

(err5rs records procedural)            ; ERR5RS records (procedural API)
(err5rs records inspection)            ; ERR5RS records (inspection API)
(err5rs records syntactic)             ; ERR5RS records (syntactic API)
(err5rs load)                          ; ERR5RS load procedure

Other autoloadable libraries:

(larceny load)                         ; extension of (err5rs load)
(larceny compiler)                     ; separate compilation (R7RS/R6RS)
(larceny benchmarking)                 ; timing facilities
(larceny profiling)                    ; profiling of Scheme code
(larceny r7r6)                         ; all R7RS/R6RS standard libraries
(larceny records printer)              ; custom printing of records
(larceny shivers-syntax)               ; syntax favored by Olin Shivers
(r5rs)                                 ; approximates the R5RS top level
(explicit-renaming)                    ; macros with explicit renaming

3.3.4. Library path

Larceny's autoload feature locates R7RS/R6RS libraries by performing a depth-first search of the directories that belong to Larceny's current-require-path. Libraries will not be autoloaded unless they are defined in files whose names follow Larceny's standard conventions.

The current-require-path is initialized by the startup.sch file in Larceny's root directory.

Larceny's -path command-line option adds one or more directories to the directories in the current-require-path. On most systems, you can specify multiple directories by separating them with a colon; under Windows, use a semicolon as separator instead. The first directory listed will be searched first.

The LARCENY_LIBPATH environment variable can also be used to add one or more directories to the directories in the current-require-path. Multiple directories should be specified as with the -path option.

Tip

If you have a set of portable libraries that run under more than one implementation of the R7RS, and you want to have a special version of some of those libraries for Larceny, you can put all your portable versions in one directory and the Larceny-specific versions in another. When you run Larceny, use the -path option and specify the Larceny-specific directory first.

Note

The -path option cannot be used by Scheme scripts, because command-line options are passed along to the Scheme script without being interpreted by the scheme-script processor.

Warning

We emphasize that these extensions are non-portable. Other implementations of the R7RS or R6RS may not provide anything comparable to Larceny's -path option or LARCENY_LIBPATH environment variable. Even if they do, their mappings from library names to file names may be incompatible with Larceny's.

3.3.5. Defining libraries

As an extension to the R7RS and R6RS, Larceny allows a top-level program or Scheme script to define R7RS/R6RS libraries within the file that contains the top-level program or Scheme script, before the import form that begins the top-level program. These libraries must be arranged so that no library depends upon libraries that come later in the file.

Warning

We emphasize that this extension is non-portable.

3.3.6. Importing procedures from Larceny's underlying R5RS system

Any of Larceny's R5RS-mode top-level procedures can be imported into an R7RS or R6RS library or program by using an import declaration with a primitives clause that names the R5RS procedures to be imported. For example:

    (import (primitives random current-seconds
                        getenv setenv system
                        current-directory file-modification-time)
            (scheme time))

Warning

This feature is highly non-portable. Other implementations of the R7RS or R6RS may not even have an underlying implementation of the R5RS.

3.4. Scheme scripts

On most Unix systems (including Linux and Apple's OS X), Larceny's scheme-script will execute Scheme scripts as described in R6RS non-normative appendix D, with or without the optional script header. To make Scheme scripts executable in their own right, without executing scheme-script directly, add Larceny's root directory to your path as described in doc/HOWTO-INSTALL, or edit scheme-script to define LARCENY_ROOT and copy that edited scheme-script to a directory in your path.

Suppose, for example, that /home/myself/hello is an R7RS/R6RS Scheme script whose first line is the optional script header shown below:

#!/usr/bin/env scheme-script

If you do not have execute permission for this script, or Larceny's root directory is not in your path, you can still run the script from Larceny's root directory as follows:

    % ./scheme-script /home/myself/hello

If you have execute permission for the script, and Larceny's root directory is in your path, you can also run the script as follows:

    % /home/myself/hello

If, in addition, the directory that contains the script is in your path, you can run the script as follows:

    % hello

You may also pass command-line arguments to a Scheme script.

Warning

We emphasize that Scheme scripts are not portable. Scheme scripts are specified only by a non-binding appendix to the R6RS, not by the R6RS proper. Other implementations of the R7RS or R6RS may not support Scheme scripts at all, or may give them a semantics incompatible with Larceny's.

On Unix systems, standard input and output can be redirected in the usual way. In Larceny, standard input corresponds to the textual port initially returned by current-input-port, and standard output corresponds to the textual port initially returned by current-output-port.

Warning

We emphasize that redirection of standard input and output is non-portable. Other implementations of the R7RS or R6RS may not allow redirection, or may identify the standard input and output with ports other than those initially returned by current-input-port and current-output-port.

3.5. R5RS scripting

Suppose hello.sch contains the following R5RS code:

    (display "Hello world!")
    (newline)
    (exit)

You can run hello.sch as a script by executing Larceny as follows:

    % larceny -nobanner -- hello.sch

You can redirect Larceny's standard input, in which case you may want to eliminate the herald announcement and the read/eval/print loop's prompt:

    % larceny -nobanner -- -e "(begin (herald #f) (repl-prompt values))" \
              < hello.sch

For an explanation of why that works, which may suggest other creative uses of Larceny, ask for help:

    % larceny -help

3.6. Errors

In R6RS mode, which is batch-only, errors should result in an error message followed by a clean exit from the program.

If your program encounters an error in an interactive mode (R5RS or R75RS), it will enter the debugger; this is believed to be a feature.

Despite its crudity, and to some extent because of it, Larceny's debugger works at least as well with optimized compiled code as with interpreted code.

If you type a question mark at the debugger prompt, the debugger will print a help message. That message is more helpful if you understand the Twobit compiler and Larceny's internal representations and invariants, but this manual is not the place to explain those things.

The debugging context is saved so you can exit the debugger and re-enter it from the main read/eval/print loop's prompt:

    > (debug)

The debugger is pretty much a prototype; you don't need to tell us how bad it is.

3.7. Troubleshooting

3.7.1. Errors when starting Larceny

Although Larceny runs on x86-64 machines, it requires 32-bit libraries that are not always installed on Linux and MacOS X machines. If those libraries are absent, the operating system will probably give you a mysterious or misleading error message when you try to run Larceny. For example, the operating system's loader may tell you "larceny.bin not found" even though it's perfectly obvious that larceny.bin is present within Larceny's root directory. To install the necessary 32-bit libraries on Linux machines with x86-compatible processors, someone with superuser privileges must incant

    sudo apt-get install lib32z1
    sudo apt-get install libc6-i386

Warning

The names of those 32-bit packages have changed over time, and may change again.

For Macintosh machines, someone with administrative privileges must install the Apple Developer Command Line Tools.

When attempting to run an R7RS/R6RS program, you may see a warning about "loading source in favor of stale fasl file", following by a long series of error messages about syntactic keywords used as a variable, ending with the kind of error you'd expect to see when a large R7RS/R6RS program is fed to a Scheme compiler that was expecting to see R5RS-compatible code. That means the R7RS/R6RS runtime and standard libraries were not installed correctly, or their source files have been touched or modified since they were last compiled. To fix the problem, recompile the R7RS standard libraries.

The precompiled binary forms of Larceny should run on most machines that use an appropriate processor and operating system, but the executable program "larceny.bin" may be incompatible with very old or with very new versions of the processor or operating system. If that appears to be the case, you should see whether a newer version of Larceny fixes the problem. If not, please report the problem to us at larceny@ccs.neu.edu. Please report success stories as well.

3.7.2. Errors when compiling the R7RS runtime

If something goes wrong while compiling the R7RS runtime, make sure you are running the copy of Larceny you think you are running and have read and write permission for lib/R7RS, lib/R6RS, lib/SRFI, and all their subdirectories and files. If you get an error message about something being "expanded against a different build of this library", then one or more of the compiled files in lib/R7RS or lib/R6RS or lib/SRFI or its subdirectories has gone stale. Removing all .slfasl files from lib/R6RS and lib/SRFI and their subdirectories will eliminate the stale file(s).

Warning

Don't remove the .sch, .scm, .sls, or .sld files.

3.7.3. Autoloading errors

If Larceny attempts to autoload an imported R7RS/R6RS library but cannot find the library, then the library may be defined in a file that doesn't follow Larceny's standard naming conventions. Another possibility is that the -path option was omitted or incorrect.

If an R7RS/R6RS library is recompiled, then all compiled libraries and top-level programs that depend upon it must also be recompiled. In particular, recompiling the standard R7RS runtime will invalidate all compiled libraries and top-level programs. Larceny's compile-stale script and the compile-stale-libraries procedure of (larceny compiler) make it convenient to recompile all of the libraries and top-level programs within any given directory in an order consistent with their dependencies.

3.7.4. Crashes

Please report all crashes with as much information is possible; a backtrace from a debugger or a core dump is ideal (but please do not mail the core dump without contacting us first). Larceny's run-time system is compiled with full debugging information by default and a debugger like GDB should be able to provide at least some clues.

3.8. Performance

By default, Larceny's Twobit compiler performs several optimizations that are fully compatible with the R7RS but may not be fully compatible with the older R6RS, R5RS, and IEEE-1178 standards.

When compiling R5RS code, Larceny's Twobit compiler normally makes several assumptions that allow it to generate faster code; for example, the compiler assumes Scheme's standard procedures will not be redefined.

To obtain strict conformance to R5RS semantics at the expense of slower code, use R5RS mode and evaluate the expression

    (compiler-switches 'standard)

To make the compiler generate faster code, you can promise not to redefine standard procedures and not to redefine any top-level procedure while it is running. To make this promise, evaluate

        (compiler-switches 'fast-safe)

To view the current settings of Twobit's numerous compiler switches, evaluate

        (compiler-switches)

All of Twobit's compiler switches are procedures whose setting can be changed by passing the new value of the switch as an argument.

For more information, evaluate

        (help)

Note

That help procedure is predefined only in R5RS mode, and some of the help information that will be printed may be irrelevant to the heap image you are using.

To alter the compiler switches from R7RS mode, or to disable certain compiler optimizations that are incompatible with the R6RS, see the section that describes the (larceny compiler) library.

4. Lexical syntax

Larceny's default lexical syntax extends the lexical syntax required by the R5RS, R6RS, and R7RS standards.

The R6RS forbids most lexical extensions, however, so Larceny provides several mechanisms for turning its lexical extensions on and off.

4.1. Flags

By default, Larceny recognizes several Larceny-specific flags of the form permitted by the R6RS. The flag you are most likely to encounter represents one of Larceny's unspecified values:

    #!unspecified

Certain other flags have special meanings to Larceny's read and get-datum procedures. They are described below.

4.2. Case-sensitivity

By default, Larceny is case-sensitive. This global default can be overridden by specifying —foldcase or —nofoldcase on Larceny's command line, or by changing the value of Larceny's case-sensitive? parameter.

The case-sensitivity of a particular textual input port is affected by reading one of the following flags from the port using the read or get-datum procedures:

    #!fold-case
    #!no-fold-case

The #!fold-case flag enables case-folding on data read from the port by the read and get-datum procedures, while the #!no-fold-case flag disables case-folding. The behavior established by one of these flags extends to the next such flag read from the port by read or get-datum.

Both #!fold-case and #!no-fold-case are treated as comments by Larceny's read and get-datum procedures. (This is a change from Larceny v0.97.)

4.3. Lexical extensions

When a port is first opened, the Larceny-specific lexical extensions that are accepted on the port are determined by Larceny's lexical parameters.

The following flags change the case-sensitivity and lexical extensions on the specific port from which they are read:

    #!r7rs         ; implies #!no-fold-case, enables R7RS syntax
    #!r6rs         ; implies #!no-fold-case, negates other flags
    #!r5rs         ; implies #!fold-case, enables R7RS syntax
    #!err5rs       ; enables R7RS/R6RS syntax with extensions
    #!larceny      ; implies #!no-fold-case and #!err5rs

All of those flags are treated as comments by Larceny's read and get-datum procedures. (This is a change from Larceny v0.97.)

Note

The #!r6rs flag is the only flag that disables lexical extensions. To disable R6RS lexical extensions when new ports are created, use the read-r6rs-weirdness? parameter described below.

4.4. Lexical parameters

When given no argument, these parameters return the current default for some aspects of the lexical syntax that will be accepted on newly created input ports or written to newly created output ports. When given an argument, these procedures change the default as specified by the argument.

The initial values of these parameters are determined by the -r7r6, -r7rs, -r6rs, or -r5rs options on Larceny's command line. The -r6rs option disables non-R6RS lexical syntax; the -r7r6, -r7rs, and -r5rs options allow both R7RS and R6RS syntax.

Procedure case-sensitive?

(case-sensitive? ) => boolean

(case-sensitive? boolean)

If true, newly created textual input ports behave as though they began with !fold-case. If false, newly created textual input ports behave as though they began with !no-fold-case.

Procedure read-r6rs-flags?

(read-r6rs-flags? ) => boolean

(read-r6rs-flags? boolean)

If true, allows flags other than !r6rs to be read from newly created ports. If false, flags other than !r6rs raise exceptions when read.

Procedure read-r7rs-weirdness?

(read-r7rs-weirdness? ) => boolean

(read-r7rs-weirdness? boolean)

If true, newly created textual input ports behave as though they began with #!r7rs, and R7RS lexical syntax will be used when writing external representations to newly created textual output ports. If false, R7RS-specific extensions to R5RS/R6RS lexical syntax may raise exceptions.

Procedure read-r6rs-weirdness?

(read-r6rs-weirdness? ) => boolean

(read-r6rs-weirdness? boolean)

If true, allows all R6RS lexical syntax on newly created ports without disabling other lexical syntax on those ports (so newly created textual input ports do not behave as though they began with #!r6rs). If false, R6RS-specific extensions to R5RS/R7RS lexical syntax may raise exceptions.

If read-r6rs-weirdness? is true and read-r7rs-weirdness? is false, then the R6RS bytevector syntax will be used when writing to newly opened textual output ports. If neither or both are true, then R7RS bytevector syntax will be used.

Procedure read-larceny-weirdness?

(read-larceny-weirdness? ) => boolean

(read-larceny-weirdness? boolean)

Determines whether newly created textual ports allow Larceny's usual extensions to R5RS lexical syntax. In addition, this parameter determines whether newly created ports allow # as an insignificant digit, which is required by the R5RS but disallowed by the R6RS and not required by the R7RS.

Procedure read-traditional-weirdness?

(read-traditional-weirdness? ) => boolean

(read-traditional-weirdness? boolean)

Determines whether newly created textual ports allow certain lexical extensions that are deprecated in Larceny.

Note

The semantics of read-larceny-weirdness? and read-traditional-weirdness? will change over time as deprecated misfeatures are added or dropped in response to popular demand or apathy. For the current semantics of these parameters, please consult the Larceny developers' web page that describes Larceny's lexical syntax.

5. File naming conventions

5.1. Suffixes

In Larceny, file names generally follow Unix conventions, even on Windows. The following suffixes have special meanings to some components of Larceny.

.sld
is the preferred suffix for files that contain libraries defined by the R7RS define-library syntax.
.sls
is the preferred suffix for files that contain libraries defined by the R6RS library syntax.
.sps
is the preferred suffix for files that contain R7RS/R6RS top-level programs (which consist of an import declaration followed by definitions and expressions).
.scm
is the preferred suffix for files that contain R7RS/R5RS definitions and expressions but don't contain any import declarations and don't define any R7RS/R6RS libraries.
.sch
is an alternative to .scm used by Larceny developers.
.slfasl
is the suffix for files that contain the compiled form of a .sld, .sls, or .sps file.
.fasl
is the suffix for files that contain the compiled form of R5RS source code (usually .scm or .sch).
.mal
is the preferred suffix for files that contain MacScheme assembly language in symbolic form.
.lap
is the suffix for files that contain MacScheme assembly language.
.lop
is the suffix for files that contain machine code segments in the form expected by Larceny's heap linker.
.heap
is the suffix for files that contain an executable heap image (must be combined with the larceny.bin runtime).

Note

In Larceny, R7RS define-library and R6RS library syntaxes are mostly interchangeable. The R6RS for and meta keywords may be needed when defining syntax-case macros, but the R7RS syntax is otherwise more versatile because of its include and cond-expand features. For new code, we recommend the R7RS define-library syntax.

Note

Although the R7RS define-library syntax allows export and import declarations to be placed anywhere at the top level of the syntax, it is standard practice to use only one export declaration per library, placed immediately following the name of the library, and to use only one import declaration per library, placed immediately following the export declaration.

Warning

Some of Larceny's compilation tools rely upon the convention described within the note above, and may not work if that convention is not followed.

Tip

An R7RS library definition may be split into two or more files, with the primary .sld file containing one or more include declarations that include .scm files. If foo.sld is the primary file, then the included file is ordinarily named foo.body.scm and placed within the same directory as foo.sld. If more than one .scm file is included, we recommend foo.body1.scm, foo.body2.scm, and so on. A Larceny-specific version of foo.body2.scm that's conditionally included using the cond-expand feature might be named foo.body2.larceny.scm.

Tip

Portable source code can be tailored to Larceny and other implementations of the R7RS by combining implementation-specific mechanisms such as Larceny's -path option with the include and cond-expand features of R7RS libraries.

5.2. Directories

Larceny's root directory should contain the following files:

    larceny
    scheme-script
    larceny.bin
    larceny.heap
    startup.sch

The following subdirectories are also essential for correct operation of some features of some modes in some varieties of Larceny:

    include
    lib
    lib/Base
    lib/Debugger
    lib/Ffi
    lib/MzScheme
    lib/R6RS
    lib/SRFI
    lib/Standard
    lib/TeachPacks

The include subdirectory is used when compiling files with Petit Larceny.

The startup.sch file tells Larceny's require procedure to search some of the lib subdirectories for libraries that are loaded dynamically.

5.3. Resolving references to libraries

The R7RS and R6RS standards do not specify any mapping from library names to files or other locations at which the code for a library might be found.

R6RS non-normative appendix E emphasizes the arbitrariness of such mappings:

 

Implementations may take radically different approaches to storing source code for libraries, among them: files in the file system where each file contains an arbitrary number of library forms, files in the file system where each file contains exactly one library form, records in a database, and data structures in memory.

Similarly, programs and scripts may be stored in a variety of formats. Platform constraints may restrict the choices available to an implementation, which is why the report neither mandates nor recommends a specific method for storage.

Implementations may provide a means for importing libraries….

Similarly, implementations may provide a means for executing a program represented as a UTF-8 text file containing its source code….

 
 --

To put it more starkly:

Warning

Although implementations of the R6RS may "provide a means for importing libraries" or "executing a program", they don't have to.

R7RS section 5.1 urges implementations to be reasonable:

 

Implementations which store libraries in files should document the mapping from the name of a library to its location in the file system.

 
 --

Fortunately, de facto standards have been emerging. Larceny supports those de facto standards by providing these Larceny-specific mechanisms:

  1. R7RS/R6RS standard libraries may be imported. Their code is located automagically.
  2. Nonstandard libraries, such as (larceny compiler), may be placed in one of the directories searched by Larceny's autoload feature, provided those libraries are located in files that follow Larceny's standard naming conventions as described in the next section.
  3. R7RS/R6RS top-level programs may use Larceny's -path option to specify directories that contain other libraries the program may import, provided those libraries are located in files that follow Larceny's standard naming conventions as described in the next section.
  4. R7RS/R6RS top-level programs may use Larceny's LARCENY_LIBPATH environment variable to specify directories that contain other libraries the program may import, provided those libraries are located in files that follow Larceny's standard naming conventions as described in the next section.
  5. R7RS/R6RS top-level programs and Scheme scripts may define their own libraries in the same file that contains the top-level program or Scheme script.

R7RS programs may use any of those five mechanisms, and may also use a sixth mechanism: An R7RS program can be written as a little configuration program that loads the program's libraries from files before any libraries are imported. This sixth mechanism appears to be portable, but is not available to R6RS programs executing in Larceny's R6RS mode because it mixes execution with macro expansion, which is explicitly forbidden by one of the R6RS standard's "absolute requirements".

5.4. Mapping library names to files (R7RS/R6RS)

Suppose Larceny's -path option is used to specify a certain directory, and the program imports a nonstandard library whose name is of the form (name1 name2lastname). Larceny will search for that library in the following files:

  • directory/name1/name2/…/lastname.larceny.slfasl
  • directory/name1/name2/…/lastname.larceny.sld
  • directory/name1/name2/…/lastname.larceny.sls
  • directory/name1/name2/…/lastname.slfasl
  • directory/name1/name2/…/lastname.sld
  • directory/name1/name2/…/lastname.sls
  • directory/name1/name2.larceny.slfasl
  • directory/name1/name2.larceny.sld
  • directory/name1/name2.larceny.sls
  • directory/name1/name2.slfasl
  • directory/name1/name2.sld
  • directory/name1/name2.sls
  • directory/name1.larceny.slfasl
  • directory/name1.larceny.sld
  • directory/name1.larceny.sls
  • directory/name1.slfasl
  • directory/name1.sld
  • directory/name1.sls

The search starts with the first of those file names, continues with the following file names in order, and ends when a file with one of those names is found. The imported library must be one of the libraries defined within the first file found by this search, since the search is not continued after that first file is found (except as noted in the next paragraph).

If the search ends by finding a file whose name ends with .slfasl, then Larceny checks to see whether there is a file in the same directory with the same root name but ending with .sld or .sls instead of .slfasl. If the .sld or .sls file has been modified since the .slfasl file was last modified, then a warning is printed and the .sld or .sls file is loaded instead of the .slfasl file. Otherwise the .slfasl file is loaded.

Note

The R6RS allows arbitrary mappings from library names to library code. Larceny takes advantage of this by ignoring version numbers when mapping library names to files, and by (virtually) rewriting any version number that may be specified in the definition of a library so it matches any version specification that appears within the import form. Furthermore Larceny allows different versions of the same library to be imported, but Larceny's algorithm for resolving library references ensures that the different versions of a library will be identical except for their version numbers, which have no meaningful semantics. Although Larceny's treatment of versions conforms to the R6RS specification, it should be clear that version numbers serve no purpose in Larceny. Since the R6RS version feature has no usefully portable semantics and has been ignored by most implementations of the R6RS, it is deprecated.

5.5. Mapping library names to files (R5RS)

In R5RS mode, Larceny's -path option and LARCENY_LIBPATH environment variable may be used to specify directories to be searched by the require procedure, which takes a single symbol libname as its argument. The require procedure will search for the following files in every directory that is part of the current require path, starting with the directories specified by LARCENY_LIBPATH and the -path option:

  • libname.fasl
  • libname.sch
  • libname.scm

These files are expected to contain R5RS code, not library definitions. Otherwise the search proceeds much the same as when searching for an R7RS/R6RS library.

Note

The require path is specified by startup.sch in Larceny's root directory, but may be changed dynamically using the current-require-path parameter. Changing the require path is not recommended, however, because Larceny relies on the require path for dynamic loading of libraries used by several important features of Larceny, notably R7RS and R6RS modes.

Procedure require

(require libname)

libname must be a symbol that names an R5RS-compatible library within the current require path.

If the library has not already been loaded, then it is located and loaded. If the library is found and loaded successfully, then require returns true; otherwise an error is signalled.

If the library has already been loaded, then require returns false without loading the library a second time.

Procedure current-require-path

(current-require-path ) => stringlist

(current-require-path stringlist)

The optional argument is a list of directory names (without slashes at the end) that should be searched by require and (in R7RS/R6RS modes) by Larceny's autoload feature. Returns the list of directory names that will be searched.

6. Compiling files and libraries

This chapter explains how you can use Larceny to compile Scheme source code to native machine code.

The native varieties of Larceny have a just-in-time compiler that compiles to native code automatically whenever you evaluate an expression, load a source file, or import a source library. Even so, files will load faster if they are compiled ahead of time.

Petit Larceny does not have a just-in-time compiler, so compiling ahead of time is the only way to enjoy the speed of native machine code in Petit Larceny.

The main disadvantage of compiling files and libraries is that compiled code goes stale when its original source code is changed or when a library on which the compiled code depends is changed or recompiled. Stale compiled code can be dangerously inconsistent with libraries on which it depends, so Larceny checks for staleness and refuses to execute a stale library or program.

6.1. Compiling R7RS/R6RS libraries

On Unix machines, the most convenient way to compile a group of R7RS/R6RS libraries and top-level programs is to use the compile-stale script in Larceny's root directory. If Larceny's root directory is in your execution path, then there are just two steps:

  1. Use cd to change to the directory that contains the R7RS/R6RS files you want to compile. (Files that lie within subdirectories of that directory will be compiled also.)
  2. Run the compile-stale script.

For example:

    % cd lib/R7RS
    % compile-stale

On non-Unix machines, you can accomplish the same thing using Larceny's R7RS mode and the (larceny compiler) library:

    % pushd lib\R7RS
    % ..\..\larceny -r7rs
    Larceny v0.98 "General Ripper"

    > (import (larceny compiler))

    > (compile-stale-libraries)

To compile individual files, use the compile-file or compile-library procedures that are exported by (larceny compiler).

6.2. Compiling R5RS source files

Procedure compile-file

(compile-file sourcefile)

Compiles sourcefile, which must be a string naming a file that contains R5RS source code. If faslfile is supplied as a second argument, then it must be a string naming the file that will contain the compiled code; otherwise the name of the compiled file is obtained from sourcefile by replacing the ".sch" or ".scm" suffix with ".fasl".

For R7RS/R6RS libraries and top-level programs, see above.

7. R7RS standard libraries

The R7RS standard libraries are described by the R7RS (small) standard approved in 2013.

Larceny provides all of the R7RS standard libraries, supports the full numeric tower, and can represent all Unicode characters.

Binary releases of Larceny also support Unicode strings. (When built from source code, Larceny can be configured to use Latin-1 strings instead of Unicode.)

When Larceny is invoked with the -r7r6 option on its command line, all of the standard R7RS and R6RS libraries are imported at startup. When invoked with the -r7rs option, only (scheme base) is imported at startup.

7.1. Known deviations from the R7RS standard

Larceny v0.98 does not implement these features of the R7RS standard:

  • the second (arbitrary ellipsis) form of syntax-rules described in R7RS section 4.3.2
  • include and include-ci at expression level
  • cond-expand at expression level

include, include-ci, and cond-expand are fully supported at the top-level declaration and definition levels of R7RS libraries.

To simplify interoperability with R6RS libraries and programs, the integer?, rational?, and real? procedures exported by (scheme base) have R6RS semantics. It is not clear whether that is fully compatible with the R7RS (small) standard, because the R7RS specification of those procedures appears to contradict itself.

If any other R7RS feature is missing or incompatible with the R7RS (small) standard, it's a bug.

8. R6RS standard libraries

This chapter explains which features of the R6RS standard libraries are available in each of Larceny's major modes of execution.

Larceny was the first substantially complete implementation of the R6RS. Any features that are missing from R6RS modes are missing because of bugs or because the features are deprecated in Larceny.

Larceny is R6RS-compatible but not R6RS-conforming. When Larceny is said to support a feature of the R6RS, that means the feature is present and will behave as specified by the R6RS so long as no exception is raised or expected. Larceny does not always raise the specific conditions specified by the R6RS, and does not perform all of the checking for portability problems that is mandated by the R6RS. These deviations do not affect the execution of production code, and do not compromise Larceny's traditional safety.

For example, Larceny has extended the R6RS library syntax to allow R6RS libraries to import R7RS libraries even when the names of those imported libraries use the more liberal R7RS syntax.

Furthermore, Larceny has extended several R6RS procedures so they behave as specified by the newer R7RS (small) standard. In Larceny, for example, the utf8->string procedure accepts one, two, or three arguments, and the finite? procedure accepts any object as its argument. According to the R6RS, utf8->string must raise an exception when passed more than one argument, and finite? must raise an exception if it detects an argument that is not a real number. Although the R6RS says these exceptions are "absolute requirements", they interfere with interoperability between R6RS and R7RS code, and are best honored in the breach.

8.1. Base library

R7RS and R6RS modes support all procedures and syntaxes exported by the (rnrs base) library.

Larceny's R5RS mode does not support library, import, or identifier-syntax.

Note

The semantics of quasiquote, let-syntax, and letrec-syntax differ between the R5RS, R6RS, and R7RS. Larceny's R5RS mode still supports the R5RS semantics. R7RS and R6RS modes support the R6RS semantics.

8.2. Unicode

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs unicode) library.

Larceny v0.98 tries to conform to The Unicode Standard, Version 7.0.

8.3. Bytevectors

R7RS and R6RS modes support all procedures and syntaxes exported by (rnrs bytevectors), but the endianness syntax is deprecated because it is redundant with quote. Larceny's R5RS mode does not support endianness.

In Larceny, any symbol names a supported endianness. The symbols big and little have their expected meanings. All other symbols mean (native-endianness) with respect to integer operations, but mean the opposite of (native-endianness) with respect to IEEE-754 operations. For string operations, the endianness must be the symbol big or the symbol little. All of these extensions are permitted by the R6RS standard.

Larceny's utf16->string and utf32->string accept one, two, or three arguments. The R6RS specification of these procedures does not allow them to accept a single argument, but that is believed to be an error in the R6RS.

8.4. Lists

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs lists) library.

8.5. Sorting

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs sorting) library.

8.6. Control

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs control) library.

8.7. Records

R7RS and R6RS modes support all procedures and syntaxes exported by (rnrs records procedural), (rnrs records inspection), and (rnrs records syntactic).

Those libraries are deprecated, however; the make-record-constructor-descriptor procedure does not simplify unusually complex cases enough to justify the complexity it adds to typical cases, and the entire syntactic layer is gratuitously incompatible with the procedural layer.

Larceny extends the R7RS define-record-type syntax exported by (scheme base) to accept the deprecated R6RS syntax, and extends the deprecated define-record-type syntax exported by (rnrs records syntactic) to accept R7RS syntax. Larceny's unification of the two syntaxes within a single implementation of define-record-type allows libraries and programs to import both (scheme base) and (rnrs) without having to rename one version of define-record-type.

Larceny also extends its unified R7RS/R6RS define-record-type to support all features of (srfi :99 records syntactic). So long as the deprecated R6RS syntax is not used, Larceny's define-record-type is fully compatible with the procedural layers defined by (srfi :99 records procedural) and by (rnrs records procedural).

Larceny's R5RS mode supports all features of the deprecated (rnrs records procedural) and (rnrs records inspection) libraries. R5RS mode does not support (rnrs records syntactic).

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (err5rs records procedural) and (err5rs records inspection) libraries. R7RS and R6RS modes also support the (err5rs records syntactic) library. These libraries are equivalent to the (srfi :99 records procedural), (srfi :99 records inspection), and (srfi :99 records syntactic) libraries.

The record definition syntax of SRFI 9 is a proper subset of the syntax provided by the (err5rs records syntactic) library. In R5RS mode, SRFI 9 can be loaded dynamically using the require procedure:

    > (require 'srfi-9)

We recommend the R7RS and/or SRFI 9 libraries be used instead of the corresponding R6RS libraries.

Warning

The R6RS spouts some tendentious nonsense about procedural records being slower than syntactic records, but this is not true of Larceny's records, and is unlikely to be true of other implementations either.

Warning

Larceny continues to support its old-style records, which are almost but not quite compatible with R7RS and R6RS records. This can be confusing, since some of Larceny's procedures have the same names as R6RS procedures. That has made it necessary to overload those procedures to work with both old-style and R6RS records. We apologize for the mess.

8.8. Exceptions and conditions

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs exceptions) and (rnrs conditions) libraries.

8.9. Input and output

R7RS and R6RS modes support all names exported by the (rnrs io ports), (rnrs io simple), and (rnrs files) libraries.

The buffer-mode, eol-style, and error-handling-mode syntaxes are deprecated because they are redundant with quote. Larceny may provide these deprecated syntaxes in the form of procedures rather than syntax, but this deviation from R6RS semantics cannot be detected by portable R6RS programs.

Larceny's R5RS mode supports all non-deprecated features of those libraries.

Larceny supports four distinct buffer modes: none, line, datum, and block. The R6RS requires the buffer-mode syntax to raise an exception for the datum buffer mode, which is the buffer mode Larceny uses for interactive output ports.

In Larceny, any symbol names a supported end-of-line style. All end-of-line and error-handling-mode symbols whose meanings are not described by the R6RS have locale-dependent meanings, which is an extension permitted by the R6RS standard.

Although Larceny supports the UTF-16 codec, it is not really useful on Windows machines (where it should be most useful) because Larceny's low-level file system mimics a byte-oriented Unix file system even on Windows. This problem should be addressed in some future version of Larceny.

The most up-to-date list of known deviations from R6RS io semantics can be found on the web page that describes the current status of Larceny's R6RS-compatible mode.

8.10. Programs

R7RS and R6RS modes support the (rnrs programs) library.

Larceny's R5RS mode provides the exit procedure but not the command-line procedure of that library. Larceny's traditional command-line-arguments procedure can be used to implement an approximation to command-line. For a definition, see lib/R6RS/rnrs/programs.sls.

8.11. Arithmetic

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs arithmetic fixnums), (rnrs arithmetic flonums), and (rnrs arithmetic bitwise) libraries.

Note

R6RS fixnum and flonum operations may be slower than the corresponding generic operations, since the fixnum and flonum operations are required to check their arguments and may also have to check their results. Isolated operations in small micro-benchmarks are likely to be slower than groups of similar operations in larger programs, however, because Larceny's compiler removes redundant checks and propagates type information.

8.12. Syntax-case

R7RS and R6RS modes support the (rnrs syntax-case) library. Larceny's R5RS mode does not.

8.13. Hashtables

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs hashtables) library.

Note

Larceny's traditional make-hashtable procedure has been renamed to make-oldstyle-hashtable.

Note

When you use Larceny's R5RS or R7RS mode to dump a heap image that contains eq? or eqv? hashtables you have created, they are automatically reset so they will rehash themselves whenever you begin a new session with the dumped heap.

8.14. Enumeration sets

R7RS and R6RS modes support the (rnrs enums) library. Larceny's R5RS mode provides all of the procedures exported by (rnrs enums) but does not provide the define-enumeration syntax.

8.15. Eval

R7RS and R6RS modes support the (rnrs eval) library. Larceny's R5RS mode provides an R5RS-compatible eval procedure, not an R6RS-compatible eval procedure, and does not provide the environment procedure.

8.16. Mutable pairs and strings

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs mutable-pairs) and (rnrs mutable-strings) libraries.

8.17. R5RS

All of Larceny's modes support all features of the (rnrs r5rs) library.

9. Larceny's R7RS/R6RS libraries

Larceny provides libraries for compiling R7RS/R6RS libraries and for timing benchmarks.

9.1. Load

The (larceny load) library exports both the load procedure of (scheme load) and Larceny's r5rs:require procedure, which is a renaming of the require procedure used by Larceny's R5RS mode.

In Larceny's R7RS mode, the load procedure can load R5RS libraries and programs as well as R7RS/R6RS libraries.

The r5rs:require procedure should be used only for dynamic loading of R5RS libraries into Larceny's underlying R5RS system. The variables defined by that library can be imported into an R7RS session or R7RS/R6RS library or program using a primitives clause in an import form.

Warning

These procedures should be used only at an interactive top level and in files that will be loaded into an interactive top level. Calls to these procedures have no effect at compile time, and should not appear in files that will be compiled separately; use the define-library and import syntaxes instead.

9.2. Compiler

The (larceny compiler) library exports the load and r5rs:require procedures of (larceny load), the current-require-path procedure, the compile-file, compile-library, and compile-stale-libraries procedures described below, and the compiler-switches procedure.

These procedures can be used to compile R7RS/R6RS libraries and top-level programs before they are imported or executed. This is especially important for Petit Larceny, which would otherwise use an interpreter. For native Larceny, whose just-in-time compiler generates native machine code as source libraries and programs are loaded, imported, or executed, the main advantage of separate compilation is that compiled libraries and programs will load much faster than source libraries and programs.

The main disadvantage of separate compilation is that compiled libraries and programs go stale when their source code is changed or when a library on which they depend is changed or recompiled. Stale libraries and programs can be dangerously inconsistent with libraries on which they depend, so Larceny checks for staleness and refuses to execute a stale library or program. The compile-stale-libraries procedure provides a convenient way to recompile stale libraries and programs.

(compile-file sourcefile [slfaslfile])

Compiles sourcefile, which must be a string naming a file that contains source code for one or more R7RS/R6RS libraries or a top-level program. If slfaslfile is supplied as a second argument, then it must be a string naming the file that will contain the compiled code; otherwise the name of the compiled file is obtained from sourcefile by replacing the ".sld" or ".sls" suffix with ".slfasl".

Procedure compile-library

(compile-library sourcefile [slfaslfile])

Compiles sourcefile, which must be a string naming a file that contains source code for one or more R7RS/R6RS libraries. Apart from its unwillingness to compile top-level programs, compile-library behaves the same as compile-file above.

Procedure compile-stale-libraries

(compile-stale-libraries )

(compile-stale-libraries changedfile)

If no argument is supplied, then all ".sld" and ".sls" files that lie within the current directory or a subdirectory are recompiled.

If changedfile is supplied, then it must be a string giving the absolute pathname of a file. (In typical usage, changedfile is a source file that has been modified, making it necessary to recompile all files that depend upon it.) Compiles all R7RS/R6RS library files that lie within the same directory as changedfile or a subdirectory, and have not yet been compiled or whose compiled files are older than changedfile.

Note

In future versions of Larceny, compile-stale-libraries might compile only the source files that depend upon changedfile.

Procedure compiler-switches

(compiler-switches )

(compiler-switches mode)

If no argument is supplied, then the current settings of all compiler switches are displayed. Each of those switches is itself a parameter that is exported by the (larceny compiler) library. Calling any individual compiler switch with no arguments will return its current setting. Calling any individual compiler switch with an argument (usually a boolean) will change its setting to that argument.

The compiler-switches procedure may also be called with one of the following symbols as its argument:

default sets most compiler switches to their default settings.

fast-safe enables all optimizations but continues to generate code to perform all run-time type and range checks that are needed for safety (in the traditional sense, not the R6RS sense).

fast-unsafe enables all optimizations and also disables type and range checking. This setting is deprecated because it compromises safety (in the traditional sense).

slow turns off all optimizations.

standard sets compiler switches for maximal conformance to the R5RS and R6RS standards.

Warning

The standard setting is deprecated because it generates very slow code (because the R5RS makes it difficult to inline standard procedures), disables most compile-time checking (because the R6RS forbids rejection of programs with obvious errors unless the R6RS classifies the errors as syntactic), and may also compromise the portability or interoperability of R7RS/R6RS libraries and programs (because the R6RS outlaws several extensions that Larceny uses to improve its compatibility with other implementations of the R5RS, R6RS, and R7RS as well as interoperability between Larceny's own R5RS and R7RS/R6RS modes).

Tip

Selective toggling of compiler switches is almost always better than using the standard setting. To improve R5RS conformance without sacrificing too much performance, set the benchmark-mode switch to false and set the integrate-procedures switch to false only when compiling files that need to be sensitive to redefinitions of standard procedures. For R6RS libraries and programs, setting the benchmark-mode and global-optimization switches to false will eliminate a couple of minor conformance issues with only a small loss of performance and without sacrificing compile-time checking or portability. For R7RS libraries and programs, the compiler's default settings already conform to the R7RS.

9.3. Benchmarking

The (larceny benchmarking) library exports the time syntax and run-benchmark procedure described below.

Syntax time

(time expression)

Evaluates expression and returns its result after printing approximations to the storage allocated and time taken during evaluation of expression.

    > (time (fib 30))
    Words allocated: 0
    Words reclaimed: 0
    Elapsed time...: 49 ms (User: 48 ms; System: 0 ms)
    Elapsed GC time: 0 ms (CPU: 0 in 0 collections.)
    832040

(run-benchmark name iterations thunk predicate)

Given the name of a benchmark, the number of iterations to be performed, a zero-argument procedure thunk that runs the benchmark, and a unary predicate that checks the result of thunk, prints approximations to the storage allocated and time taken by iterations calls to thunk.

    > (run-benchmark "fib30"
                     100
                     (lambda () (fib 30))
                     (lambda (x) (= x 832040)))

    --------------------------------------------------------
    fib30
    Words allocated: 0
    Words reclaimed: 0
    Elapsed time...: 4828 ms (User: 4824 ms; System: 4 ms)
    Elapsed GC time: 0 ms (CPU: 0 in 0 collections.)

9.4. Records printer

The (larceny records printer) library exports the two procedures described below. These procedures can be used to override Larceny's usual printing of records and opaque types that were defined using the records libraries.

Procedure rtd-printer

(rtd-printer rtd) => maybe-procedure

Given a record type descriptor, returns its custom print procedure, or returns false if the rtd has no custom print procedure.

Procedure rtd-printer-set!

(rtd-printer-set! rtd printer)

Given a record type descriptor rtd and a printer for instances of that rtd, installs printer as a custom print procedure for rtd. The printer should be a procedure that, given an instance of the rtd and a textual output port, writes a representation of the instance to the port.

10. ERR5RS standard libraries

ERR5RS has been superseded by the R7RS, so the libraries described below are now deprecated.

10.1. Load

The (err5rs load) library has been superseded by the (scheme load) library, and continues to exist only for backward compatibility.

Procedure load

(load filename)

Loads ERR5RS code from filename, evaluating each form as though it had been entered at the interactive read/eval/print loop.

Warning

The load procedure should be used only at an interactive top level and in files that will be loaded into an interactive top level. Calls to the load procedure have no effect at compile time, and should not appear in files that will be compiled separately; use the library and import syntaxes instead.

10.2. Records

The ERR5RS record facility described below incorporates all optional features of SRFI 99 and is otherwise identical to the facilities described by SRFI 99. SRFI 99 is itself an extension of SRFI 9, whose define-record-type syntax is identical to that defined by the R7RS.

When a procedure is said to be equivalent to an R6RS procedure, the equivalence holds only when all arguments have the properties required of them by the R6RS specification. ERR5RS does not mandate R6RS exception semantics for programs that violate the specification.

10.2.1. Procedural layer

This section describes the (err5rs records procedural) library.

Procedure make-rtd

(make-rtd name fieldspecs)

(make-rtd name fieldspecs parent-rtd)

(make-rtd name fieldspecs parent-rtd option …)

name is a symbol, which matters only to the rtd-name procedure of the inspection layer. fieldspecs is a vector of field specifiers, where each field specifier is one of

  • a symbol naming the (mutable) field;
  • a list of the form (mutable name), where name is a symbol naming the mutable field;
  • a list of the form (immutable name), where name is a symbol naming the immutable field.

The optional parent is an rtd or #f. It is an error for any of the symbols in fieldspecs to name more than one of the fields specified by fieldspecs, but the field names in fieldspecs may shadow field names in the parent rtd.

make-rtd returns an R6RS-compatible record-type descriptor.

Larceny allows the following optional arguments to follow the optional parent-rtd argument:

  • the symbol sealed means the new rtd cannot be used as the parent of other rtds;
  • the symbol opaque means the record? predicate will not recognize instances of the new rtd;
  • the symbol uid, followed by another symbol id, means the new rtd is non-generative with uid id; the semantics of this extension is the same as in the R6RS.

These Larceny-specific options may be used in any combination, giving Larceny's ERR5RS records the same expressive power as R6RS records, with which they are fully interoperable.

Procedure rtd?

(rtd? obj)

This predicate returns true if and only if its argument is a record-type descriptor. rtd? is equivalent to the record-type-descriptor? procedure of the R6RS.

Procedure rtd-constructor

(rtd-constructor rtd)

(rtd-constructor rtd fieldspecs)

rtd is a record-type descriptor, and fieldspecs is an optional vector of symbols.

If no fieldspecs argument is supplied, then rtd-constructor returns a procedure that expects one argument for each field of the record-type described by rtd and returns an instance of that record-type with its fields initialized to the corresponding arguments. Arguments that correspond to the fields of the record-type's parent (if any) come first.

If fieldspecs is supplied, then rtd-constructor returns a procedure that expects one argument for each element of fieldspecs and returns an instance of the record-type described by rtd with the named fields initialized to the corresponding arguments.

It is an error if some symbol occurs more than once in fieldspecs. Fields of a derived record-type shadow fields of the same name in its parent; the fieldspecs argument cannot be used to initialize a shadowed field.

Procedure rtd-predicate

(rtd-predicate rtd)

Equivalent to the record-predicate procedure of the R6RS.

Procedure rtd-accessor

(rtd-accessor rtd field)

field is a symbol that names a field of the record-type described by the record-type descriptor rtd. Returns a unary procedure that accepts instances of rtd (or any record-type that inherits from rtd) and returns the current value of the named field.

Fields in derived record-types shadow fields of the same name in a parent record-type.

Procedure rtd-mutator

(rtd-mutator rtd field)

field is a symbol that names a field of the record-type described by the record-type descriptor rtd. Returns a binary procedure that accepts instances of rtd (or any record-type that inherits from rtd) and a new value to be stored into the named field, performs that side effect, and returns an unspecified value.

Fields in derived record-types shadow fields of the same name in a parent record-type.

10.2.2. Inspection layer

This section describes the (err5rs records inspection) library.

Procedure record?

(record? obj)

Equivalent to its R6RS namesake.

Procedure record-rtd

(record-rtd record)

Equivalent to its R6RS namesake.

Procedure rtd-name

(rtd-name rtd)

Equivalent to the record-type-name procedure of the R6RS.

Procedure rtd-parent

(rtd-parent rtd)

Equivalent to the record-type-parent procedure of the R6RS.

Procedure rtd-field-names

(rtd-field-names rtd)

Equivalent to the record-type-field-names procedure of the R6RS. (That is, it returns a vector of the symbols that name the fields of the record-type represented by rtd, excluding the fields of parent record-types.)

Procedure rtd-all-field-names

(rtd-all-field-names rtd)

Returns a vector of the symbols that name the fields of the record-type represented by rtd, including the fields of its parent record-types, if any, with the fields of parent record-types coming before the fields of its children, with each subsequence in the same order as in the vectors that would be returned by calling rtd-field-names on rtd and on all its ancestral record-type descriptors.

Procedure rtd-field-mutable?

(rtd-field-mutable? rtd field)

rtd is a record-type descriptor, and field is a symbol naming a field of the record-type described by rtd. Returns #t if the named field is mutable; otherwise returns #f.

10.2.3. Syntactic layer

This section describes the (err5rs records syntactic) library.

The syntactic layer consists of SRFI 9 extended with single inheritance and (optional) implicit naming.

All ERR5RS record-type definitions are generative (unless Larceny's optional uid feature is used), but ERR5RS drops the SRFI 9 restriction to top level, mainly because the R6RS allows generative definitions wherever a definition may appear.

The syntax of an ERR5RS record-type definition is

    <definition>
      -> <record type definition>           ; addition to 7.1.6 in R5RS

    <record type definition>
      -> (define-record-type <type spec>
           <constructor spec>
           <predicate spec>
           <field spec> ...)

    <type spec>  -> <type name>
                 -> (<type name> <parent>)

    <constructor spec>
                 -> #f
                 -> #t
                 -> <constructor name>
                 -> (<constructor name> <field name> ...)

    <predicate spec>
                 -> #f
                 -> #t
                 -> <predicate name>

    <field spec> -> <field name>
                 -> (<field name>)
                 -> (<field name> <accessor name>)
                 -> (<field name> <accessor name> <mutator name>)

    <parent>           -> <expression>

    <type name>        -> <identifier>
    <constructor name> -> <identifier>
    <predicate name>   -> <identifier>
    <accessor name>    -> <identifier>
    <mutator name>     -> <identifier>
    <field name>       -> <identifier>

The semantics of a record type definition is the same as in SRFI 9: the record type definition macro-expands into a cluster of definitions that

  • defines the <type name> as the record-type descriptor for the new record-type;
  • defines a constructor for instances of the new record-type (unless the constructor spec is #f);
  • defines a predicate that recognizes instances of the new record-type and its subtypes (unless the predicate spec is #f);
  • defines an accessor for each field name;
  • defines a mutator for each mutable field name.

An ERR5RS record type definition extends SRFI 9 with the following additional options:

  • If a <parent> expression is specified, then it must evaluate to an rtd that serves as the parent record-type for the record-type being defined.
  • If #f is specified for the constructor or predicate, then no constructor or predicate procedure is defined. (This is useful when the record-type being defined will be used as an abstract base class.)
  • If #t is specified for the constructor or predicate, then the name of the constructor is the type name prefixed by make-, and the name of the predicate is the type name followed by a question mark (?).
  • If the constructor name is specified as #t or as an identifier, then the constructor's arguments correspond to the fields of the parent (if any) followed by the new fields added by this record-type definition.
  • If a field spec consists of a single identifier, then

    • the field is immutable;
    • the name of its accessor is the type name followed by a hyphen (-) followed by the field name.
  • If a field spec consists of a list of one identifier, then

    • the field is mutable;
    • the name of its accessor is the type name followed by a hyphen (-) followed by the field name;
    • the name of its mutator is the type name followed by a hyphen (-) followed by the field name followed by -set!.

10.2.4. Record identity

Two ERR5RS records with fields are eqv? if and only if they were created by the same (dynamic) call to some record constructor. Two ERR5RS records are eq? if and only if they are eqv?.

Apart from the usual constraint that equivalence according to eqv? implies equivalence according to equal?, the behavior of equal? on ERR5RS records is unspecified. (This is compatible with the R6RS.)

A define-record-type form macro-expands into code that calls make-rtd each time the expanded record-type definition is executed. Two ERR5RS record-type descriptors are eqv? if and only if they were created by the same (dynamic) call to make-rtd.

11. Larceny's R5RS libraries

The procedures described in this chapter are nonstandard. Some are deprecated after being rendered obsolete by R7RS or R6RS standard libraries. Others still provide useful capabilities that the standard libraries don't.

11.1. Strings

Larceny provides Unicode strings with R6RS semantics.

The string-downcase and string-upcase procedures perform Unicode-compatible case folding, which can result in a string whose length is different from that of the original.

Larceny may still provide string-downcase! and string-upcase! procedures, but they are deprecated.

11.2. Bytevectors

A bytevector is a data structure that stores bytes — exact 8-bit unsigned integers. Bytevectors are useful in constructing system interfaces and other low-level programming. In Larceny, many bytevector-like structures — bignums, for example — are implemented in terms of a lower-level bytevector-like data type. The operations on generic bytevector-like structures are particularly fast but useful largely in code that manipulates Larceny's data representations.

The (rnrs bytevectors) library now provides a large set of procedures that, in Larceny, are defined using the procedures described below.

Integrable procedure make-bytevector

(make-bytevector length) => bytevector

(make-bytevector length fill) => bytevector

Returns a bytevector of the desired length. If no second argument is given, then the bytevector has not been initialized and most likely contains garbage.

Operations on bytevector structures

(bytevector? obj) => boolean

(bytevector-length bytevector) => integer

(bytevector-ref bytevector offset) => byte

(bytevector-set! bytevector offset byte) => unspecified

(bytevector-equal? bytevector1 bytevector2) => boolean

(bytevector-fill! bytevector byte) => unspecified

(bytevector-copy bytevector) => bytevector

These procedures do what you expect. All are integrable, except bytevector-equal? and bytevector-copy. The bytevector-equal? name is deprecated, since the R6RS calls it bytevector=?.

Operations on bytevector-like structures

(bytevector-like? obj) => boolean

(bytevector-like-length bytevector) => integer

(bytevector-like-ref bytevector offset) => byte

(bytevector-like-set! bytevector offset byte) => unspecified

(bytevector-like-equal? bytevector1 bytevector2) => boolean

(bytevector-like-copy bytevector) => bytevector

A bytevector-like structure is a low-level representation for indexed arrays of uninterpreted bytes. Bytevector-like structures are used to represent types such as bignums and flonums.

There is no way to construct a "generic" bytevector-like structure; use the constructors for specific bytevector-like types.

The bytevector-like operations operate on all bytevector-like structures. All are integrable, except bytevector-like-equal? and bytevector-like-copy. All are deprecated because they violate abstraction barriers and make your code representation-dependent; they are useful mainly to Larceny developers, who might otherwise be tempted to write some low-level operations in C or assembly language.

11.3. Vectors

Procedure vector-copy

(vector-copy vector) => vector

Returns a shallow copy of its argument.

Operations on vector-like structures

(vector-like? object) => boolean

(vector-like-length vector-like) => fixnum

(vector-like-ref vector-like k) => object

(vector-like-set! vector-like k object) => unspecified

A vector-like structure is a low-level representation for indexed arrays of Scheme objects. Vector-like structures are used to represent types such as vectors, records, symbols, and ports.

There is no way to construct a "generic" vector-like structure; use the constructors for specific data types.

The vector-like operations operate on all vector-like structures. All are integrable. All are deprecated because they violate abstraction barriers and make your code representation-dependent; they are useful mainly to Larceny developers, who might otherwise be tempted to write some low-level operations in C or assembly language.

11.4. Procedures

Operations on procedures

(make-procedure length) => procedure

(procedure-length procedure) => fixnum

(procedure-ref procedure offset) => object

(procedure-set! procedure offset object) => unspecified

These procedures operate on the representations of procedures and allow user programs to construct, inspect, and alter procedures.

Procedure procedure-copy

(procedure-copy procedure) => procedure

Returns a shallow copy of the procedure.

Warning

The procedures above are deprecated because they violate abstraction barriers and make your code representation-dependent; they are useful mainly to Larceny developers, who might otherwise be tempted to write some low-level operations in C or assembly language.

The rest of this section describes some procedures that reach through abstraction barriers in a more controlled way to extract heuristic information from procedures for debugging purposes.

Note

The following text is copied from a straw proposal authored by Will Clinger and sent to rrr-authors on 09 May 1996. The text has been edited lightly. See the end for notes about the Larceny implementation.

The procedures that extract heuristic information from procedures are permitted to return any result whatsoever. If the type of a result is not among those listed below, then the result represents an implementation-dependent extension to this interface, which may safely be interpreted as though no information were available from the procedure. Otherwise the result is to be interpreted as described below.

Procedure procedure-arity

(procedure-arity proc)

Returns information about the arity of proc. If the result is #f, then no information is available. If the result is an exact non-negative integer k, then proc requires exactly k arguments. If the result is an inexact non-negative integer n, then proc requires n or more arguments. If the result is a pair, then it is a list of non-negative integers, each of which indicates a number of arguments that will be accepted by proc; the list is not necessarily exhaustive.

Procedure procedure-documentation-string

(procedure-documentation-string proc)

Returns general information about proc. If the result is #f, then no information is available. If the result is a string, then it is to be interpreted as a "documentation string" (see Common Lisp).

Procedure procedure-name

(procedure-name proc)

Returns information about the name of proc. If the result is #f, then no information is available. If the result is a symbol or string, then it represents a name. If the result is a pair, then it is a list of symbols and/or strings representing a path of names; the first element represents an outer name and the last element represents an inner name.

Procedure procedure-source-file

(procedure-source-file proc)

Returns information about the name of a file that contains the source code for proc. If the result is #f, then no information is available. If the result is a string, then the string is the name of a file.

Procedure procedure-source-position

(procedure-source-position proc)

Returns information about the position of the source code for proc whithin the source file specified by procedure-source-file. If the result is #f, then no information is available. If the result is an exact integer k, then k characters precede the opening parenthesis of the source code for proc within that source file.

Procedure procedure-expression

(procedure-expression proc)

Returns information about the source code for proc. If the result is #f, then no information is available. If the result is a pair, then it is a lambda expression in the traditional representation of a list.

Procedure procedure-environment

(procedure-environment proc)

Returns information about the environment of proc. If the result is #f, then no information is available. In any case the result may be passed to any of the environment inquiry functions.

Notes on the Larceny implementation

Twobit does not yet produce data for all of these functions, so some of them always return #f.

11.5. Pairs and Lists

The (rnrs lists) library now provides a set of procedures that may supersede some of the procedures described below. If one of Larceny's procedures duplicates the semantics of an R6RS procedure whose name is different, then Larceny's name is deprecated.

Procedure append!

(append! list1 list2 … obj) => object

append! destructively appends its arguments, which must be lists, and returns the resulting list. The last argument can be any object. The argument lists are appended by changing the cdr of the last pair of each argument except the last to point to the next argument.

Procedure every?

(every? procedure list1 list2 …) => object

every? applies procedure to each element tuple of list_s in first-to-last order, and returns #f as soon as _procedure returns #f. If procedure does not return #f for any element tuple of list_s, then the value returned by _procedure for the last element tuple of _list_s is returned.

Procedure last-pair

(last-pair list-structure) => pair

last-pair returns the last pair of the list structure, which must be a sequence of pairs linked through the cdr fields.

Procedure list-copy

(list-copy list-copy) => list

list-copy makes a shallow copy of the list and returns that copy.

Procedure remove

(remove key list) => list

Procedure remq

(remq key list) => list

Procedure remv

(remv key list) => list

Procedure remp

(remp pred? list) => list

Each of these procedures returns a new list which contains all the elements of list in the original order, except that those elements of the original list that were equal to key (or that satisfy pred?) are not in the new list. Remove uses equal? as the equivalence predicate; remq uses eq?, and remv uses eqv?.

Procedure remove!

(remove! key list) => list

Procedure remq!

(remq! key list) => list

Procedure remv!

(remv! key list) => list

Procedure remp!

(remp! pred? list) => list

These procedures are like remove, remq, remv, and remp, except they modify list instead of returning a fresh list.

Procedure reverse!

(reverse! list) => list

reverse! destructively reverses its argument and returns the reversed list.

Procedure some?

(some? procedure list1 list2 …) => object

some? applies procedure to each element tuple of list_s in first-to-last order, and returns the first non-false value returned by _procedure. If procedure does not return a true value for any element tuple of _list_s, then some? returns #f.

11.6. Sorting

The (rnrs sorting) library now provides a small set of procedures that supersede most of the procedures described below. All of the procedures described below are therefore deprecated.

Procedures sort and sort!

(sort list less?) => list

(sort vector less?) => vector

(sort! list less?) => list

(sort! vector less?) => vector

These procedures sort their argument (a list or a vector) according to the predicate less?, which must implement a total order on the elements in the data structures that are sorted.

sort returns a fresh data structure containing the sorted data; sort! sorts the data structure in-place.

11.7. Records

Note

Larceny's records have been extended to implement all SRFI 99 and R6RS procedures from

(srfi :99 records procedural)
(srfi :99 records inspection)
(rnrs records procedural)
(rnrs records inspection)

We recommend that Larceny programmers use the SRFI 99 APIs instead of the R6RS APIs. This should entail no loss of portability, since the standard reference implementation of SRFI 99 records should run efficiently in any implementation of the R7RS/R6RS that permits new libraries to defined at all.

Larceny now has two kinds of records: old-style and R7RS/R6RS/SRFI99/ERR5RS. Old-style records cannot be created in R6RS-conforming mode, so our extension of R6RS procedures to accept old-style records does not affect R6RS conformance.

Note

The following specification describes Larceny's old-style record API, which is now deprecated. It is based on a proposal posted by Pavel Curtis to rrrs-authors on 10 Sep 1989, and later re-posted by Norman Adams to comp.lang.scheme on 5 Feb 1992. The authorship and copyright status of the original text are unknown to me.

This document differs from the original proposal in that its record types are extensible, and that it specifies the type of record-type descriptors.

11.7.1. Specification

Procedure make-record-type

(make-record-type type-name field-names)

Returns a "record-type descriptor", a value representing a new data type, disjoint from all others. The type-name argument must be a string, but is only used for debugging purposes (such as the printed representation of a record of the new type). The field-names argument is a list of symbols naming the "fields" of a record of the new type. It is an error if the list contains any duplicates.

If the parent-rtd argument is provided, then the new type will be a subtype of the type represented by parent-rtd, and the field names of the new type will include all the field names of the parent type. It is an error if the complete list of field names contains any duplicates.

Record-type descriptors are themselves records. In particular, record-type descriptors have a field printer that is either #f or a procedure. If the value of the field is a procedure, then the procedure will be called to print records of the type represented by the record-type descriptor. The procedure must accept two arguments: the record object to be printed and an output port.

Procedure record-constructor

(record-constructor rtd)

Returns a procedure for constructing new members of the type represented by rtd. The returned procedure accepts exactly as many arguments as there are symbols in the given list, field-names; these are used, in order, as the initial values of those fields in a new record, which is returned by the constructor procedure. The values of any fields not named in that list are unspecified. The field-names argument defaults to the list of field-names in the call to make-record-type that created the type represented by rtd; if the field-names argument is provided, it is an error if it contains any duplicates or any symbols not in the default list.

Procedure record-predicate

(record-predicate rtd)

Returns a procedure for testing membership in the type represented by rtd. The returned procedure accepts exactly one argument and returns a true value if the argument is a member of the indicated record type or one of its subtypes; it returns a false value otherwise.

Procedure record-accessor

(record-accessor rtd field-name)

Returns a procedure for reading the value of a particular field of a member of the type represented by rtd. The returned procedure accepts exactly one argument which must be a record of the appropriate type; it returns the current value of the field named by the symbol field-name in that record. The symbol field-name must be a member of the list of field-names in the call to make-record-type that created the type represented by rtd, or a member of the field-names of the parent type of the type represented by rtd.

Procedure record-updater

(record-updater rtd field-name)

Returns a procedure for writing the value of a particular field of a member of the type represented by rtd. The returned procedure accepts exactly two arguments: first, a record of the appropriate type, and second, an arbitrary Scheme value; it modifies the field named by the symbol field-name in that record to contain the given value. The returned value of the updater procedure is unspecified. The symbol field-name must be a member of the list of field-names in the call to make-record-type that created the type represented by rtd, or a member of the field-names of the parent type of the type represented by rtd.

(record? obj)

Returns a true value if obj is a record of any type and a false value otherwise. Note that record? may be true of any Scheme value; of course, if it returns true for some particular value, then record-type-descriptor is applicable to that value and returns an appropriate descriptor.

Procedure record-type-descriptor

(record-type-descriptor record)

Returns a record-type descriptor representing the type of the given record. That is, for example, if the returned descriptor were passed to record-predicate, the resulting predicate would return a true value when passed the given record. Note that it is not necessarily the case that the returned descriptor is the one that was passed to record-constructor in the call that created the constructor procedure that created the given record.

Procedure record-type-name

(record-type-name rtd)

Returns the type-name associated with the type represented by rtd. The returned value is eqv? to the type-name argument given in the call to make-record-type that created the type represented by rtd.

Procedure record-type-field-names

(record-type-field-names rtd)

Returns a list of the symbols naming the fields in members of the type represented by rtd.

Procedure record-type-parent

(record-type-parent rtd)

Returns a record-type descriptor for the parent type of the type represented by rtd, if that type has a parent type, or a false value otherwise. The type represented by rtd has a parent type if the call to make-record-type that created rtd provided the parent-rtd argument.

Procedure record-type-extends?

(record-type-extends? rtd1 rtd2)

Returns a true value if the type represented by rtd1 is a subtype of the type represented by rtd2 and a false value otherwise. A type s is a subtype of a type t if s=t or if the parent type of s, if it exists, is a subtype of t.

11.7.2. Implementation

The R6RS spouts some tendentious nonsense about procedural records being slower than syntactic records, but this is not true of Larceny's records, and is unlikely to be true of other implementations either. Larceny's procedural records are fairly efficient already, and will become even more efficient in future versions as interlibrary optimizations are added.

11.8. Input, Output, and Files

The (scheme base), (scheme file), (rnrs io ports), and (rnrs files) libraries now provide a set of procedures that may supersede some of the procedures described below. If one of Larceny's procedures duplicates the semantics of an R7RS or R6RS procedure whose name is different, then Larceny's name is deprecated.

Procedure close-open-files

(close-open-files ) => unspecified

Closes all open files.

Procedure console-input-port

(console-input-port ) => input-port

Returns a character input port such that no read from the port has signalled an error or returned the end-of-file object.

Rationale: console-input-port and console-output-port are artifacts of Unix interactive I/O conventions, where an interactive end-of-file does not mean "quit" but rather "done here". Under these conventions the console port should be reset following an end-of-file. Resetting conflicts with the semantics of ports in Scheme, so console-input-port and console-output-port return a new port if the current port is already at end-of-file.

Since it is convenient to handle errors in the same manner as end-of-file, these procedures also return a new port if an error has been signalled during an I/O operation on the port.

Console-input-port and console-output-port simply call the port generators installed in the parameters console-input-port-factory and console-output-port-factory, which allow user programs to install their own console port generators.

Procedure console-output-port

(console-output-port ) => output-port

Returns a character output port such that no write to the port has signalled an error.

See console-input-port for a full explanation.

Parameter console-input-port-factory

The value of this parameter is a procedure that returns a character input port such that no read from the port has signalled an error or returned the end-of-file object.

See console-input-port for a full explanation.

Parameter console-output-port-factory

The value of this parameter is a procedure that returns a character output port such that no write the port has signalled an error.

See console-input-port for a full explanation.

Parameter current-input-port

The value of this parameter is a character input port.

Parameter current-output-port

The value of this parameter is a character output port.

Procedure delete-file

(delete-file filename) => unspecified

Deletes the named file. No error is signalled if the file does not exist.

Procedure eof-object

(eof-object ) => end-of-file object

Eof-object returns an end-of-file object.

Procedure file-exists?

(file-exists? filename) => boolean

File-exists? returns #t if the named file exists at the time the procedure is called.

Procedure file-modification-time

(file-modification-time filename) => vector or #f

File-modification-time returns the time of last modification of the file as a vector, or #f if the file does not exist. The vector has six elements: year, month, day, hour, minute, second, all of which are exact nonnegative integers. The time returned is relative to the local timezone.

(file-modification-time "larceny") => #(1997 2 6 12 51 13)

(file-modification-time "geekdom") => #f

Procedure flush-output-port

(flush-output-port ) => unspecified

(flush-output-port port) => unspecified

Write any buffered data in the port to the underlying output medium.

Procedure get-output-string

(get-output-string string-output-port) => string

Retrieve the output string from the given string output port.

Procedure open-input-string

(open-input-string string) => input-port

Creates an input port that reads from string. The string may be shared with the caller. A string input port does not need to be closed, although closing it will prevent further reads from it.

Procedure open-output-string

(open-output-string ) => output-port

Creates an output port where any output is written to a string. The accumulated string can be retrieved with get-output-string at any time.

Procedure port?

(port? object) => boolean

Tests whether its argument is a port.

Procedure port-name

(port-name port) => string

Returns the name associated with the port; for file ports, this is the file name.

Procedure port-position

(port-position port) => fixnum

Returns the number of characters that have been read from or written to the port.

Procedure rename-file

(rename-file from to) => unspecified

Renames the file from and gives it the name to. No error is signalled if from does not exist or to exists.

Procedure reset-output-string

(reset-output-string port) => unspecified

Given a port created with open-output-string, deletes from the port all the characters that have been output so far.

Procedure with-input-from-port

(with-input-from-port input-port thunk) => object

Calls thunk with current input bound to input-port in the dynamic extent of thunk. Returns whatever value was returned from thunk.

Procedure with-output-to-port

(with-output-to-port output-port thunk) => object

Calls thunk with current output bound to output-port in the dynamic extent of thunk. Returns whatever value was returned from thunk.

11.9. Operating System Interface

Procedure command-line-arguments

(command-line-arguments ) => vector

Returns a vector of strings: the arguments supplied to the program by the user or the operating system.

Procedure dump-heap

(dump-heap filename procedure) => unspecified

Dump a heap image to the named file that will start up with the supplied procedure. Before procedure is called, command line arguments will be parsed and any init procedures registered with add-init-procedure! will be called.

Note: Currently, heap dumping is only available with the stop-and-copy collector (-stopcopy command line option), although the heap image can be used with all the other collectors.

Procedure dump-interactive-heap

(dump-interactive-heap filename) => unspecified

Dump a heap image to the named file that will start up with the standard read-eval-print loop. Before the read-eval-print loop is called, command line arguments will be parsed and any init procedures registered with add-init-procedure! will be called.

Note: Currently, heap dumping is only available with the stop-and-copy collector (-stopcopy command line option), although the heap image can be used with all the other collectors.

Procedure getenv

(getenv key) => string or #f

Returns the operating system environment mapping for the string key, or #f if there is no mapping for key.

Note

This is now a synonym for the get-environment-variable exported by the (scheme process-context) library.

Procedure setenv

(setenv key val) => unspecified

Sets the operating system environment mapping for the string key to val.

Procedure system

(system command) => status

Send the command to the operating system's command processor and return the command's exit status, if any. On Unix, command is a string and status is an exact integer.

11.10. Fixnum primitives

Fixnums are small exact integers that are likely to be represented without heap allocation. Larceny never represents a number that can be represented as a fixnum any other way, so programs that can use fixnums will do so automatically. However, operations that work only on fixnums can sometimes be substantially faster than generic operations, and the following primitives are provided for use in those programs that need especially good performance.

The (rnrs arithmetic fixnums) library now provides a large set of procedures, some of them similar to the procedures described below. If one of Larceny's procedures duplicates the semantics of an R6RS procedure whose name is different, then Larceny's name is deprecated within R7RS/R6RS code.

All arguments to the following procedures must be fixnums.

Procedure fixnum?

(fixnum? obj) => boolean

Returns #t if its argument is a fixnum, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fx+

(fx+ fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns the fixnum sum of its arguments. If the result is not representable as a fixnum, then an error is signalled (unless error checking has been disabled).

Procedure fx-

Returns the fixnum difference of its arguments. If the result is not representable as a fixnum, then an error is signalled.

Procedure fx—

(fx— fix1) => fixnum

Returns the fixnum negative of its argument. If the result is not representable as a fixnum, then an error is signalled.

Procedure fx*

(fx* fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns the fixnum product of its arguments. If the result is not representable as a fixnum, then an error is signalled.

Procedure fx=

(fx= fix1 fix2) => boolean

Returns #t if its arguments are equal, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fx<

(fx< fix1 fix2) => boolean

Returns #t if fix1 is less than fix2, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fx<=

(fx<= fix1 fix2) => boolean

Returns #t if fix1 is less than or equal to fix2, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fx>

(fx> fix1 fix2) => boolean

Returns #t if fix1 is greater than fix2, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fx>=

(fx>= fix1 fix2) => boolean

Returns #t if fix1 is greater than or equal to fix2, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fxnegative?

(fxnegative? fix) => boolean

Returns #t if its argument is less than zero, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fxpositive?

(fxpositive? fix) => boolean

Returns #t if its argument is greater than zero, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fxzero?

(fxzero? fix) => boolean

Returns #t if its argument is zero, and #f otherwise.

Procedure fxlogand

(fxlogand fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns the bitwise and of its arguments.

Procedure fxlogior

(fxlogior fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns the bitwise inclusive or of its arguments.

Procedure fxlognot

(fxlognot fix) => fixnum

Returns the bitwise not of its argument.

Procedure fxlogxor

(fxlogxor fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its arguments.

Procedure fxlsh

(fxlsh fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns fix1 shifted left fix2 places, shifting in zero bits at the low end. If the shift count exceeds the number of bits in the machine's word size, then the results are machine-dependent.

Procedure most-positive-fixnum

(most-positive-fixnum ) => fixnum

Returns the largest representable positive fixnum.

Procedure most-negative-fixnum

(most-negative-fixnum ) => fixnum

Returns the smallest representable negative fixnum.

Procedure fxrsha

(fxrsha fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns fix1 shifted right fix2 places, shifting in a copy of the sign bit at the left end. If the shift count exceeds the number of bits in the machine's word size, then the results are machine-dependent.

Procedure fxrshl

(fxrshl fix1 fix2) => fixnum

Returns fix1 shifted right fix2 places, shifting in zero bits at the high end. If the shift count exceeds the number of bits in the machine's word size, then the results are machine-dependent.

11.11. Numbers

Larceny has six representations for numbers: fixnums are small, exact integers; bignums are unlimited-precision exact integers; ratnums are exact rationals; flonums are inexact rationals; rectnums are exact complexes; and compnums are inexact complexes.

Number-representation predicates

(fixnum? obj) => boolean

(bignum? obj) => boolean

(ratnum? obj) => boolean

(flonum? obj) => boolean

(rectnum? obj) => boolean

(compnum? obj) => boolean

These predicates test whether an object is a number of a particular representation and return #t if so, #f if not.

Procedure random

(random limit) => exact integer

Returns a pseudorandom nonnegative exact integer in the range 0 through limit-1.

11.12. Hashtables and hash functions

Hashtables represent finite mappings from keys to values. If the hash function is a good one, then the value associated with a key may be looked up in constant time (on the average).

Note

The R6RS hashtables library are a big improvement over Larceny's traditional hash tables, and should be used instead of the API described below.

Note

To resolve a clash of names and semantics with the R6RS make-hashtable procedure, Larceny's traditional make-hashtable procedure has been renamed to make-oldstyle-hashtable.

11.12.1. Hash tables

Procedure make-oldstyle-hashtable

(make-oldstyle-hashtable hash-function bucket-searcher size) => hashtable

Returns a newly allocated mutable hash table using hash-function as the hash function and bucket-searcher, e.g. assq, assv, assoc, to search a bucket with size buckets at first, expanding the number of buckets as needed. The hash-function must accept a key and return a non-negative exact integer.

(make-oldstyle-hashtable hash-function bucket-searcher) => hashtable

Equivalent to (make-oldstyle-hashtable hash-function bucket-searcher n) for some value of n chosen by the implementation.

(make-oldstyle-hashtable hash-function) => hashtable

Equivalent to (make-oldstyle-hashtable hash-function assv).

(make-oldstyle-hashtable ) => hashtable

Equivalent to (make-oldstyle-hashtable object-hash assv).

Procedure hashtable-contains?

(hashtable-contains? hashtable key) => bool

Returns true iff the hashtable contains an entry for key.

Procedure hashtable-fetch

(hashtable-fetch hashtable key flag) => object

Returns the value associated with key in the hashtable if the hashtable contains key; otherwise returns flag.

Procedure hashtable-get

(hashtable-get hashtable key) => object

Equivalent to (hashtable-fetch #f).

Procedure hashtable-put!

(hashtable-put! hashtable key value) => unspecified

Changes the hashtable to associate key with value, replacing any existing association for key.

Procedure hashtable-remove!

(hashtable-remove! hashtable key) => unspecified

Removes any association for key within the hashtable.

Procedure hashtable-clear!

(hashtable-clear! hashtable) => unspecified

Removes all associations from the hashtable.

Procedure hashtable-size

(hashtable-size hashtable) => integer

Returns the number of keys contained within the hashtable.

Procedure hashtable-for-each

(hashtable-for-each procedure hashtable) => unspecified

The procedure must accept two arguments, a key and the value associated with that key. Calls the procedure once for each key-value association in hashtable. The order of these calls is indeterminate.

Procedure hashtable-map

(hashtable-map procedure hashtable)

The procedure must accept two arguments, a key and the value associated with that key. Calls the procedure once for each key-value association in hashtable, and returns a list of the results. The order of the calls is indeterminate.

Procedure hashtable-copy

(hashtable-copy hashtable) => hashtable

Returns a copy of the hashtable.

11.12.2. Hash functions

The hash values returned by these functions are nonnegative exact integer suitable as hash values for the hashtable functions.

Procedure equal-hash

(equal-hash object) => integer

Returns a hash value for object based on its contents.

Procedure object-hash

(object-hash object) => integer

Returns a hash value for object based on its identity.

Warning

This hash function performs extremely poorly on pairs, vectors, strings, and bytevectors, which are the objects with which it is mostly likely to be used. For efficient hashing on object identity, create the hashtable with make-eq-hashtable or make-eqv-hashtable of the (rnrs hashtables) library.

Procedure string-hash

(string-hash string) => fixnum

Returns a hash value for string based on its content.

Procedure symbol-hash

(symbol-hash symbol) => fixnum

Returns a hash value for symbol based on its print name. The symbol-hash is very fast, because the hash code is cached in the symbol data structure.

11.13. Parameters

Parameters are procedures that serve as containers for values.

When called with no arguments, a parameter returns its current value. The value of a parameter can be changed temporarily using the parameterize syntax described below.

The effect of passing arguments to a parameter is implementation-dependent. In Larceny, passing one argument to a parameter changes the current value of the parameter to the result of applying a converter procedure to that argument, as described by SRFI 39.

Procedure make-parameter

(make-parameter init) => procedure

(make-parameter init converter) => procedure

(make-parameter name init predicate) => procedure

Creates a parameter.

When make-parameter is called with one argument init, the parameter's initial value is init, and the parameter's converter will be the identity function.

When make-parameter is called with two arguments, converter must be a procedure that accepts one argument, and the parameter's initial value is the result of calling converter on init.

Larceny extends SRFI 39 and the R7RS specification of make-parameter by allowing it to be called with three arguments. The first argument, name, must be a symbol or string giving the print name of the parameter. The second argument, init, will be the initial value of the parameter. The third argument is a predicate from which Larceny constructs a converter procedure that acts like the identity function on arguments that satisfy the predicate but raises an exception on arguments that don't.

(make-parameter name init) => procedure

Larceny's parameter objects predate SRFI 39. For backward compatibility, Larceny's make-parameter will accept two arguments even if the second is not a procedure, provided the first argument is a symbol or string. In that special case, the two arguments will be treated as the name and init arguments to Larceny's three-argument version, with the predicate defaulting to the identity function. This extension is strongly deprecated.

Syntax parameterize

(parameterize ((parameter0 value0) …) expr0 expr1 …)

Parameterize temporarily overrides the values of a set of parameters while the expressions in the body of the parameterize expression are evaluated. (It is like fluid-let for parameters instead of variables.)

11.14. Property Lists

The property list of a symbol is an association list that is attached to that symbol. The association list maps properties, which are themselves symbols, to arbitrary values.

Procedure putprop

(putprop symbol property obj) => unspecified

If an association exists for property on the property list of symbol, then its value is replaced by the new value obj. Otherwise, a new association is added to the property list of symbol that associates property with obj.

Procedure getprop

(getprop symbol property) => obj

If an association exists for property on the property list of symbol, then its value is returned. Otherwise, #f is returned.

Procedure remprop

(remprop symbol property) => unspecified

If an association exists for property on the property list of symbol, then that association is removed. Otherwise, this is a no-op.

11.15. Symbols

Procedure gensym

(gensym string) => symbol

Gensym returns a new uninterned symbol, the name of which contains the given string.

Procedure oblist

(oblist ) => list

Oblist returns the list of interned symbols.

Procedure oblist-set!

(oblist-set! list) => unspecified

(oblist-set! list table-size) => unspecified

oblist-set! sets the list of interned symbols to those in the given list by clearing the symbol hash table and storing the symbols in list in the hash table. If the optional table-size is given, it is taken to be the desired size of the new symbol table.

See also: symbol-hash.

11.16. System Control and Performance Measurement

Procedure collect

(collect ) => unspecified

(collect generation) => unspecified

(collect generation method) => unspecified

Collect initiates a garbage collection. If the system has multiple generations, then the optional arguments are interpreted as follows. The generation is the generation to collect, where 0 is the youngest generation. The method determines how the collection is performed. If method is the symbol collect, then a full collection is performed in that generation, whatever that means — in a normal multi-generational copying collector, it means that all live objects in the generation's current semispace and all live objects from all younger generations are copied into the generation's other semispace. If method is the symbol promote, then live objects are promoted from younger generations into the target generation — in our example collector, that means that the objects are copied into the target generation's current semispace.

The default value for generation is 0, and the default value for method is collect.

Note that the collector's internal policy settings may cause it to perform a more major type of collection than the one requested; for example, an attempt to collect generation 2 could cause the collector to promote all live data into generation 3.

Procedure gc-counter

(gc-counter ) => fixnum

gc-counter returns the number of garbage collections performed since startup. On a 32-bit system, the counter wraps around every 1,073,741,824 collections.

gc-counter is a primitive and compiles to a single load instruction on the SPARC.

Procedure major-gc-counter

(major-gc-counter ) => fixnum

major-gc-counter returns the number of major garbage collections performed since startup, where a major collection is defined as a collection that may change the address of objects that have already survived a previous collection. On a 32-bit system, the counter wraps around every 1,073,741,824 collections.

major-gc-counter is a primitive and compiles to a single load instruction on the SPARC. Its primary use to implement efficient hashtables that hash on object identity (make-eq-hashtable and make-eqv-hashtable).

Procedure gcctl

(gcctl heap-number operation operand) => unspecified

[GCCTL is largely obsolete in the new garbage collector but may be resurrected in the future. It can still be used to control the non-predictive collector.]

gcctl controls garbage collection policy on a heap-wise basis. The heap-number is the heap to operate on, like for the command line switches: heap 1 is the youngest. If the given heap number does not correspond to a heap, gcctl fails silently.

The operation is a symbol that selects the operation to perform, and the operand is the operand to that operation, always a number. For the non-predictive garbage collector, the following operator/operand pairs are meaningful:

  • j-fixed, n: after a collection, the collector parameter j should be set to the value n, if possible. (Non-predictive heaps only.)
  • j-percent, n: after a collection, the collector parameter j should be set to be n percent of the number of free steps. (Non-predictive heaps only.)
  • incr-fixed, n: when growing the heap, the growing should be done in increments of n. In the non-predictive heap, n is the number of steps. In other heaps, n denotes kilobytes.
  • incr-percent, n: when growing the heap, the growing should be done in increments of n percent.

Example: if the non-predictive heap is heap number 2, then the expressions

(gcctl 2 'j-fixed 0)
(gcctl 2 'incr-fixed 1)

makes the non-predictive collector simulate a normal stop-and-copy collector (because j is always set to 0), and grows the heap only one step at a time as necessary. This may be useful for certain kinds of experiments.

Example: ditto, the expressions

(gcctl 2 'j-percent 50)
(gcctl 2 'incr-percent 20)

selects the default policy settings.

Note: The gcctl facility is experimental. A more developed facility will allow controlling heap contraction policy, as well as setting all the watermarks. Certainly one can envision other uses, too. Finally, it needs to be possible to get current values.

Note: Currently the non-predictive heap (np-sc-heap.c) and the standard stop-and-copy "old" heap (old-heap.c) are supported, but not the standard "young" heap (young-heap.c), nor the stop-and-copy collector (sc-heap.c).

Procedure sro

(sro pointer-tag type-tag limit) => vector

SRO ("standing room only") is a system primitive that traverses the entire heap and returns a vector that contains all live objects in the heap that satisfy the constraints imposed by its parameters:

  • If pointer-tag is -1, then object type is unconstrained; otherwise, the object type is constrained to have a pointer tag that matches pointer-tag. You can read all about pointer tags here, but the short story is that 1=pair, 3=vector-like, 5=bytevector-like, and 7=procedure-like.
  • If type-tag is -1, then object type is unconstrained by type-tag; otherwise, only objects with a matching type-tag are selected (after selection by pointer tag). Pairs don't have type-tags, but other objects do. You can read all about type-tags here.
  • Limit constrains the selected objects by the number of references. If limit is -1, then no constraints are imposed; otherwise, only objects (selected by pointer-tag and type-tag) with no more than limit references to them are selected.

For example, (sro -1 -1 -1) returns a vector that contains all live objects (not including the vector), and (sro 5 2 3) returns a vector containing all live flonums (bytevector-like, with typetag 2) that are referred to in no more than 3 places.

Procedure stats-dump-on

(stats-dump-on filename) => unspecified

Stats-dump-on turns on garbage collection statistics dumping. After each collection, a complete RTS statistics dump is appended to the file named by filename.

The file format and contents are documented in a banner written at the top of the output file. In addition, accessor procedures for the output structure are defined in the program Util/process-stats.sch.

Stats-dump-on does not perform an initial dump when the file is first opened; only at the first collection is the first set of statistics dumped. The user might therefore want to initiate a minor collection just after turning on dumping in order to have a baseline set of data.

Procedure stats-dump-off

(stats-dump-off ) => unspecified

Stats-dump-off turns off garbage collection statistics dumping (which was turned on with stats-dump-on). It does not dump a final set of statistics before closing the file; therefore, the user may wish to initiate a minor collection before calling this procedure.

Procedure system-features

(system-features ) => alist

System-features returns an association lists of system features. Most entries are self-explanatory. The following are a more subtle:

  • The value of architecture-name is Larceny's notion of the architecture for which it was compiled, not the architecture the program is currently running on. For example, the value of this feature is "Standard-C" if you're running Petit Larceny.
  • The value of heap-area-info is a vector of vectors, one subvector for each heap area in the running system. The subvector has four entries: the generation number, the area type, the current size, and additional information.

Procedure display-memstats

(display-memstats vector) => unspecified

(display-memstats vector minimal) => unspecified

(display-memstats vector minimal full) => unspecified

Display-memstats takes as its argument a vector as returned by memstats and displays the contents of the vector in human-readable form on the current output port. By default, not all of the values in the vector are displayed.

If the symbol minimal is passed as the second argument, then only a small number of statistics generally relevant to running benchmarks are displayed.

If the symbol full is passed as the second argument, then all statistics are displayed.

Procedure memstats

(memstats ) => vector

Memstats returns a freshly allocated vector containing run-time-system resource usage statistics. Many of these will make no sense whatsoever to you unless you also study the RTS sources. A listing of the contents of the vector is available here.

Procedure run-with-stats

(run-with-stats thunk) => obj

Run-with-stats evaluates thunk, then prints a short summary of run-time statistics, as with

(display-memstats ... 'minimal),

and then returns the result of evaluating thunk.

Procedure run-benchmark

(run-benchmark name k thunk ok?) => obj

Run-benchmark prints a short banner (including the identifying name) to identify the benchmark, then runs thunk k times, and finally tests the value returned from the last call to thunk by applying the predicate ok? to it. If the predicate returns true, then run-benchmark prints summary statistics, as with

([display-memstats][5] ... 'minimal).

If the predicate returns false, an error is signalled.

11.17. SRFI Support

SRFIs (Scheme Requests For Implementations) describe and implement additional Scheme libraries. The SRFI effort is open to anyone, and is described at http://srfi.schemers.org.

SRFIs are numbered. Importing SRFIs into an R7RS library or program is straightforward:

(import (srfi 19)
        (srfi 27))

The R6RS forbids numbers within library names, so R6RS libraries and programs must import SRFI libraries using the SRFI 97 naming convention in which a colon precedes the number:

(import (srfi :19)
        (srfi :27))

To test whether particular SRFIs are available, use the R7RS cond-expand feature:

(cond-expand
 ((and (library (srfi 19))
       (library (srfi 27)))
  (import (srfi 19))
  (import (srfi 27))))

cond-expand is not available to R6RS libraries or programs.

R5RS programs can use cond-expand as implemented by SRFI 0, "Feature-based conditional expansion construct". (SRFI 0 must be loaded into Larceny before it can be used; see below.) Larceny provides the following nonstandard key for use in SRFI 0:

    larceny

Larceny currently supports many SRFIs, though not as many as it should. Some SRFIs are built into Larceny's R5RS mode, but most must be loaded dynamically using Larceny's require procedure:

    > (require 'srfi-0)

The design documents for SRFI 0 and other SRFIs are available at http://srfi.schemers.org.

11.18. SLIB support

SLIB is a large collection of useful libraries that have been written or collected by Aubrey Jaffer.

Larceny supports SLIB via SRFI 96, but SLIB itself is not shipped with Larceny; it must be downloaded separately and then installed. For the most up-to-date information on installing and using SLIB with Larceny, see doc/HOWTO-SLIB.

11.19. Foreign-Function Interface to C

Larceny provides a general foreign-function interface (FFI) substrate on which other FFIs can be built; see Larceny Note #7. The FFI described in this manual section is a simple example of a derived FFI. It is not yet fully evolved, but it is useful.

Warning

This section has undergone signficant revision, but not all of the material has been properly vetted. Some of the information in this section may be out of date.

Note

Some of the text below is adapted from the 2008 Scheme Workshop paper, “The Layers of Larceny's Foreign Function Interface,” by Felix S Klock II. That paper may provide additional insight for those searching for implementation details and motivations.

11.19.1. Introducing the FFI

There are a number of different potential ways to use the FFI. One client may want to develop code in C and load it into Larceny. Another client may want to load native libraries provided by the host operating system, enabling invocation of foreign code from Scheme expressions without developing any C code or even running a C compiler. Larceny's FFI can be used for both of these cases, but many of its facilities target a third client in between the two extremes: a client with a C compiler and the header files and object code for the foreign libraries, but who wishes to avoid writing glue code in C to interface with the libraries.

There are four main steps to interacting with foreign code:

  1. identifying the space of values manipulated by the foreign code that will also be manipulated in Scheme,
  2. describing how to marshal values between foreign and Scheme code,
  3. loading library file(s) holding foreign object code, and
  4. linking procedures from the loaded library.

Step 1 is conceptual, while steps 2 through 4 yield artifacts in Scheme source code.

11.19.2. The space of foreign values

At the machine code level, foreign values are uninterpreted sequences of bits. Often foreign object code is oriented around manipulating word-sized bit-sequences (words) or arrays and tuples of words.

Many libraries are written with a particular interpretation of such values. In C code, explicit types are often used hints to guide such interpretation; for example, a 0 of type bool is usually interpreted as false, while a 1 (or other non-zero value) of type bool is usually interpreted as true. Another example are C enumerations (or enums). An enum declaration defines a set of named integral constants. After the C declaration:

enum months { JAN = 1, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC };

a JAN in C code now denotes 1, FEB is 2, and so on. Furthermore, tools like debuggers may render a variable x dynamically assigned the value 2 (and of static type enum months) as FEB. Thus the enum declaration intoduces a new interpretation for a finite set of integers.

This leads to questions for a client of an FFI; we explore some below.

  • Should foreign words be passed over to the Scheme world as uninterpreted numbers (and thus be converted into Scheme integers, usually fixnums), or should they be marshaled into interpreted values, such as #f and #t for the bool type, or the Scheme symbols {JAN, FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN, JUL, AUG, SEP, OCT, NOV, DEC} for the enum months type?
  • Similarly, how should Scheme values be marshaled into foreign words?
  • A foreign library might leave the mapping of names like FEB to words like 2 unspecified in the library interface. That is, while the C compiler will know FEB maps to 2 according to a particular version of the library's header file, the library designer may intend to change this mapping in the future, and clients writing C code should only use the names to refer to a enum months value, and not integer expressions.

    • How should this constraint be handled in the FFI; should the library client revise their code in reaction to such changes to the mapping?
    • Or should the system derive the mapping from the header files, in the same manner that the C compiler does?
  • Foreign libraries often manipulate mutable entities, like arrays of words where modifications can be observed (often by design).

    • How should such values be marshaled?
    • Is it sound to copy such values to the Scheme heap? If so, is a shallow copy sufficient?
  • Will the foreign code hold references to heap-allocated objects? Heap-allocated objects that leak out to foreign memory must be treated with care; garbage collection presents two main problems.

    • First, such objects must not move during a garbage collection; Larceny supports this via special-purpose allocation routines: cons-nonrelocatable, make-nonrelocatable-bytevector, and make-nonrelocatable-vector.
    • Second, the garbage collector must know to hold on to (i.e. trace) such values as long as they are needed by foreign code; otherwise the objects or their referents may be collected without the knowledge of the foreign code.

Answering these questions may require deep knowledge of the intended usage of the foreign library.

The Larceny FFI attempts to ease interfacing with foreign code in the presence of the above concerns, but the nature of the header files included with most foreign libraries means that the FFI cannot infer the answers unassisted.

Note

Foreign C code developed to work in concert with Larceny could hypothetically be written to cope with holding handles for objects managed by the the garbage collector, but there is currently no significant support for this use-case.

Note

One class of foreign values is not addressed by the Larceny FFI: structures passed by value (as opposed to by reference, ie pointers to structures). There is no way to describe the interface to a foreign procedure that accepts or produces a C struct (at least not properly nor portably).

This tends to not matter for many foreign libraries (since many C programmers eschew passing structures by value), but it can arise.

If the foreign library of interest has procedures that accept or produce a C struct, we currently recommend either avoiding such procedures, or writing adapter code in C that marshals between values handled by the FFI and the C struct.

The conclusion is: when designing an interface to a foreign library, you should analyze the values manipulated on the foreign side and identify their relationship with values on the Scheme side. After you have identified the domains of interest, you then describe how the values will be marshaled back and forth between the two domains.

11.19.3. Marshalling via ffi-attributes

This section describes the marshalling protocol defined in lib/Base/std-ffi.sch.

Foreign functions automatically marshal their inputs and outputs according to type-descriptors attached to each foreign function.

Type-descriptors are S-expressons formed according to the following grammar:

TypeDesc ::= CoreAttr | ArrowT | MaybeT | OneOfT

CoreAttr ::= PrimAttr | VoidStar | ---

PrimAttr ::= CurrentPrimAttr | DeprecatedPrimAttr

CurrentPrimAttr
         ::= int | uint | byte | short | ushort | char | uchar
          |  long | ulong | longlong | ulonglong
          |  size_t | float | double |  bool | string | void

DeprecatedPrimAttr
         ::= unsigned | boxed

VoidStar ::= void* | ---

ArrowT   ::= (-> (TypeDesc ...) TypeDesc)

MaybeT   ::= (maybe TypeDesc)

OneOfT   ::= (oneof (Any Fixnum) ... TypeDesc)

where --- represents a user-extensible part of the grammar (see below), Any represents any Scheme value, and Fixnum represents any word-sized integer.

A central registry maps CoreAttr's to a foreign representation and two conversion routines: one to convert a Scheme value to a foreign argument, and another to convert a foreign result back back to a Scheme value. The denoted components are collectively referred to as a type within the FFI documentation. The registry is extensible; the ffi-add-attribute-core-entry! procedure adds new CoreAttr's to the registry, and one can alternatively add short-hands for type-descriptors via the ffi-add-alias-of-attribute-entry! procedure. Finally, one can add new VoidStar productions (subtypes of the void* type-descriptor) via the ffi-install-void*-subtype procedure (defined in the lib/Standard/foreign-stdlib.sch library).

11.19.3.1. Primitive Attribute Types

The following is a list of the accepted types and their conversions at the boundary between Scheme and foreign code:

int
Exact integer values in the range [-231,231-1]. Scheme integers in that range are converted to and from C "int".
uint
Exact integer values in the range [0,232-1]. Scheme integers in that ranges are converted to and from C "unsigned int".
byte
Synonymous with int in the current implementation.
short
Synonymous with int in the current implementation.
ushort
Synonymous with unsigned in the current implementation.
char
Scheme ASCII characters are converted to and from C "char".
uchar
Scheme ASCII characters are converted to and from C "unsigned char".
long
Synonymous with int in the current implementation.
ulong
Synonymous with unsigned in the current implementation.
longlong
Exact integer values in the range [-263,263-1]. Scheme integers in that range are converted to and from C "long long".
ulonglong
Exact integer values in the range [0,264-1]. Scheme integers in that range are converted to and from C "unsigned long long".
size_t
Synonymous with uint in the current implementation.
float
Scheme flonums are converted to and from C "float". The conversion to float is performed via a C (float) cast from a C double.
double
Scheme flonums are converted to and from C "double".
bool
Scheme objects are converted to C "int"; #f is converted to 0, and all other objects to 1. In the reverse direction, 0 is converted to #f and all other integers to #t.
string
A Scheme string holding ASCII characters is copied into a NUL-terminated bytevector, passing a pointer to its first byte to the foreign procedure; #f is converted to a C "(char*)0" value. In the reverse direction, a pointer to a NUL-terminated sequence of bytes interpreted as ASCII characters is copied into a freshly allocated Scheme string; a NULL pointer is converted to #f.
void
No return value. (Only used in return position for foreign functions; all Scheme procedures passed to the FFI are invoked in a context expecting one value.)
unsigned
Synonymous with uint; deprecated.
boxed
Any heap-allocated data structure (pair, bytevector-like, vector-like, procedure) is converted to a C "void*" to the first element of the structure. The value #f is also acceptable. It is converted to a C "(void*)0" value. (Only used in argument position for foreign functions; foreign functions are not expected to return direct references to heap-allocated values.)
11.19.3.2. Extending the Core Attribute Registry

The public interface to many foreign libraries is written in terms of types defined within that foreign library. One can introduce new types to the Larceny FFI by extending the core attribute entry table.

Procedure ffi-add-attribute-core-entry!

(ffi-add-attribute-core-entry! entry-name rep-sym marshal unmarshal) => unspecified

ffi-add-attribute-core-entry! extends the internal registry with the new entry specified by its arguments.

  • entry-name is a symbol (the symbolic type name being introduced to the ffi).
  • rep-name is a low-level type descriptor symbol, one of signed32, unsigned32, signed64, unsigned64 (representing varieties of fixed width integers), ieee32 (representing “floats”), ieee64 (representing “doubles”), or pointer (representing “(void*)” in C).
  • marshal is a marshaling function that accepts a Scheme object and a symbol (the name of the invoking procedure); it is responsible for checking the Scheme object's validity and then producing a corresponding instance of the low-level representation.
  • unmarshal is either #f or an unmarshalling function that accepts an instance of the low-level representation and produces a corresponding Scheme object.
11.19.3.3. Attribute Type Constructors

Core attributes suffice for linking to simple functions. Constructured FFI attributes express more complex marshaling protocols

Arrow Type Constructors. A structured FFI attribute of the form (-> (s_1s_n) s_r) (called an arrow type) allows passing functions from Scheme to C and back again. Each of the s_1, …, s_n, s_r is an FFI attribute. When an arrow type describes an input to a foreign function, it marshals a Scheme procedure to a C function pointer by generating glue code to hook the two together and marshal values as described by the FFI attributes within the arrow type. Likewise, when an arrow type describes an output from a foreign function, it marshals a C function pointer to a Scheme procedure, again by generating glue code. These two mappings naturally generalize to arbitrary nesting of arrow types, so one can create callbacks that consume callouts, return callouts that consume callbacks, and so on.

Warning

The current implementation of arrow types introduces an unnecessary space leak, because none of Larceny's current garbage collectors attempt to reclaim some of the structure allocated (in particular, the so-called trampolines) when functions are marshaled via arrow types.

The FFI could be revised to reduce the leak (e.g. it could keep a cache of generated trampolines and reuse them, but currently do not do so).

Many foreign libraries have a structure where one only sets up a fixed set of callbacks, and then all further computation does not require arrow type marshaling. This is one reason why fixing this problem has been a low priority item for the Larceny development team.

Maybe Type Constructor. (maybe t) captures the pattern of passing NULL in C and #f in Scheme to represent the absence of information. The FFI attribute t within the maybe type describes the typical information passed; the constructed maybe type marshals #f to the foreign null pointer or 0 (as appropriate), and otherwise applies the marshaling of t. Likewise, it unmarshals the foreign null pointer and 0 to #f, and otherwise applies the unmarshaling of t.

(There are a few other built-in type constructors, such as the oneof type constructor, but they are not as fully-developed as the two above, and are intended for use only for internal development for now.)

11.19.3.4. void* Type Hierarchies

Using the void* attribute wraps foreign addresses up in a Larceny record, so that standard numeric operations cannot be directly applied by accident. The FFI uses two features of Larceny's record system: the record type descriptor is a first class value with an inspectable name, and record types are extensible via single-inheritance.

Basic Operations on void*The FFI provides void*-rt, a record type descriptor with a single field (a wrapped address). There is also a family of functions for dereferencing the pointer within a void*-rt and manipulating the state it references.

Procedure void*->address

(void*->address x) => number

Extracts the underlying address held in a void*.

Procedure void*?

(void*? x) => boolean

Distinquishes void*'s from other Scheme values.

Procedure void*-byte-ref

(void*-byte-ref x idx) => number

Extracts byte at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-byte-set!

(void*-byte-set! x idx val) => unspecified

Modifies byte at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-word-ref

(void*-word-ref x idx) => number

Extracts word-sized integer at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-word-set!

(void*-word-set! x idx val) => unspecified

Modifies word-sized integer at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-void*-ref

(void*-void*-ref x idx) => void*

Extracts address (and wraps it in a void*) at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-void*-set!

(void*-void*-set! x idx val) => unspecified

Modifies address at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-double-ref

(void*-double-ref x idx) => number

Extracts 64-bit flonum at offset from address within x.

Procedure void*-double-set!

(void*-double-set! x idx val) => unspecified

Modifies 64-bit flonum at offset from address within x.

Type Hierarchies. Procedures for establishing type hierarchies are provided by the lib/Standard/foreign-stdlib.sch library; see ffi-install-void*-subtype and establish-void*-subhierarchy!.

11.19.4. Creating loadable modules

You must first compile your C code and create one or more loadable object modules. These object modules may then be loaded into Larceny, and Scheme foreign functions may link to specific functions in the loaded module. Defining foreign functions in Scheme is covered in a later section.

The method for creating a loadable object module varies from platform to platform. In the following, assume you have to C source files file1.c and file2.c that define functions that you want to make available as foreign functions in Larceny.

11.19.4.1. SunOS 4

Compile your source files and create a shared library. Using GCC, the command line might look like this:

gcc -fPIC -shared file1.c file2.c -o my-library.so

The command creates my-library.so in the current directory. This library can now be loaded into Larceny using foreign-file. Any other shared libraries used by your library files should also be loaded into Larceny using foreign-file before any procedures are linked using foreign-procedure.

By default, /lib/libc.so is made available to the dynamic linker and to the foreign function interface, so there is no need for you to load that library explicitly.

11.19.4.2. SunOS 5

Compile your source files and create a shared library, linking with all the necessary libraries. Using GCC, the command line might look like this:

gcc -fPIC -shared file1.c file2.c -lc -lm -lsocket -o my-library.so

Now you can use foreign-file to load my-library.so into Larceny.

By default, /lib/libc.so is made available to the foreign function interface, so there is no need for you to load that library explicitly.

11.19.5. The Interface

11.19.5.1. Procedures

Procedure foreign-file

(foreign-file filename) => unspecified

foreign-file loads the named object file into Larceny and makes it available for dynamic linking.

Larceny uses the operating system provided dynamic linker to do dynamic linking. The operation of the dynamic linker varies from platform to platform:

  • On some versions of SunOS 4, if the linker is given a file that does not exist, it will terminate the process. (Most likely this is a bug.) This means you should never call foreign-file with the name of a file that does not exist.
  • On SunOS 5, if a foreign file is given to foreign-file without a directory specification, then the dynamic linker will search its load path (the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable) for the file. Hence, a foreign file in the current directory should be "./file.so", not "file.so".

Procedure foreign-procedure

(foreign-procedure name (arg-type …) return-type) => unspecified

FIXME: The interface to this function has been extended to support hooking into Windows procedures that use the Pascal calling convention instead of the C one. The way to select which convention to use should be documented.

Returns a Scheme procedure p that calls the foreign procedure whose name is name. When p is called, it will convert its parameters to representations indicated by the arg-types and invoke the foreign procedure, passing the converted values as parameters. When the foreign procedure returns, its return value is converted to a Scheme value according to return-type.

Types are described below.

The address of the foreign procedure is obtained by searching for name in the symbol tables of the foreign files that have been loaded with foreign-file.

Procedure foreign-null-pointer

(foreign-null-pointer ) => integer

Returns a foreign null pointer.

Procedure foreign-null-pointer?

(foreign-null-pointer? integer) => boolean

Tests whether its argument is a foreign null pointer.

11.19.6. Foreign Data Access

11.19.6.1. Raw memory access

The two primitives peek-bytes and poke-bytes are provided for reading and writing memory at specific addresses. These procedures are typically used for copying data from foreign data structures into Scheme bytevectors for subsequent decoding.

(The use of peek-bytes and poke-bytes can often be avoided by keeping foreign data in a Scheme bytevector and passing the bytevector to a call-out using the boxed parameter type. However, this technique is inappropriate if the foreign code retains a pointer to the Scheme datum, which may be moved by the garbage collector.)

Procedure peek-bytes

(peek-bytes addr bytevector count) => unspecified

Addr must be an exact nonnegative integer. Count must be a fixnum. The bytes in the range from addr through addr+count-1 are copied into bytevector, which must be long enough to hold that many bytes.

If any address in the range is not an address accessible to the process, unpredictable things may happen. Typically, you'll get a segmentation fault. Larceny does not yet catch segmentation faults.

Procedure poke-bytes

(poke-bytes addr bytevector count) => unspecified

Addr must be an exact nonnegative integer. Count must be a fixnum. The count first bytes from bytevector are copied into memory in the range from addr through addr+count-1.

If any address in the range is not an address accessible to the process, unpredictable things may happen. Typically, you'll get a segmentation fault. Larceny does not yet catch segmentation faults.

Also, it's possible to corrupt memory with poke-bytes. Don't do that.

11.19.6.2. Foreign data sizes

The following variables constants define the sizes of basic C data types:

  • sizeof:short The size of a "short int".
  • sizeof:int The size of an "int".
  • sizeof:long The size of a "long int".
  • sizeof:pointer The size of any pointer type.
11.19.6.3. Decoding foreign data

Foreign data is visible to a Scheme program either as an object pointed to by a memory address (which is itself represented as an integer), or as a bytevector that contains the bytes of the foreign datum.

A number of utility procedures that make reading and writing data of common C primitive types have been written for both these kinds of foreign objects.

Bytevector accessor procedures

(%get16 bv i) => integer

(%get16u bv i) => integer

(%get32 bv i) => integer

(%get32u bv i) => integer

(%get-int bv i) => integer

(%get-unsigned bv i) => integer

(%get-short bv i) => integer

(%get-ushort bv i) => integer

(%get-long bv i) => integer

(%get-ulong bv i) => integer

(%get-pointer bv i) => integer

These procedures decode bytevectors that contain the bytes of foreign objects. In each case, bv is a bytevector and i is the offset of the first byte of a field in that bytevector. The field is fetched and returned as an integer (signed or unsigned as appropriate).

Bytevector updater procedures

(%set16 bv i val) => unspecified

(%set16u bv i val) => unspecified

(%set32 bv i val) => unspecified

(%set32u bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-int bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-unsigned bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-short bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-ushort bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-long bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-ulong bv i val) => unspecified

(%set-pointer bv i val) => unspecified

These procedures update bytevectors that contain the bytes of foreign objects. In each case, bv is a bytevector, i is an offset of the first byte of a field in that bytevector, and val is a value to be stored in that field. The values must be exact integers in a range implied by the data type.

Foreign-pointer accessor procedures

(%peek8 addr) => integer

(%peek8u addr) => integer

(%peek16 addr) => integer

(%peek16u addr) => integer

(%peek32 addr) => integer

(%peek32u addr) => integer

(%peek-int addr) => integer

(%peek-long addr) => integer

(%peek-unsigned addr) => integer

(%peek-ulong addr) => integer

(%peek-short addr) => integer

(%peek-ushort addr) => integer

(%peek-pointer addr) => integer

(%peek-string addr) => integer

These procedures read raw memory. In each case, addr is an address, and the value stored at that address (the size of which is indicated by the name of the procedure) is fetched and returned as an integer.

%Peek-string expects to find a NUL-terminated string of 8-bit bytes at the given address. It is returned as a Scheme string.

Foreign-pointer updater procedures

(%poke8 addr val) => unspecified

(%poke8u addr val) => unspecified

(%poke16 addr val) => unspecified

(%poke16u addr val) => unspecified

(%poke32 addr val) => unspecified

(%poke32u addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-int addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-long addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-unsigned addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-ulong addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-short addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-ushort addr val) => unspecified

(%poke-pointer addr val) => unspecified

These procedures update raw memory. In each case, addr is an address, and val is a value to be stored at that address.

11.19.7. Heap dumping and the FFI

If foreign functions are linked into Larceny using the FFI, and a Larceny heap image is subsequently dumped (with dump-interactive-heap or dump-heap), then the foreign functions are not saved as part of the heap image. When the heap image is subsequently loaded into Larceny at startup, the FFI will attempt to re-link all the foreign functions in the heap image.

During the relinking phase, foreign files will again be loaded into Larceny, and Larceny's FFI will use the file names as they were originally given to the FFI when it tries to load the files. In particular, if relative pathnames were used, Larceny will not have converted them to absolute pathnames.

An error during relinking will result in Larceny aborting with an error message and returning to the operating system. This is considered a feature.

11.19.8. Examples

11.19.8.1. Change directory

This procedure uses the chdir() system call to set the process's current working directory. The string parameter type is used to pass a Scheme string to the C procedure.

(define cd
  (let ((chdir (foreign-procedure "chdir" '(string) 'int)))
    (lambda (newdir)
      (if (not (zero? (chdir newdir)))
      (error "cd: " newdir " is not a valid directory name."))
      (unspecified))))
11.19.8.2. Print Working Directory

This procedure uses the getcwd() (get current working directory) system call to retrieve the name of the process's current working directory. A bytevector is created and passed in as a buffer in which to store the return value — a 0-terminated ASCII string. Then the FFI utility function ffi/asciiz->string is called to convert the bytevector to a string.

(define pwd
  (let ((getcwd (foreign-procedure "getcwd" '(boxed int) 'int)))
    (lambda ()
      (let ((s (make-bytevector 1024)))
    (getcwd s 1024)
    (ffi/asciiz->string s)))))
11.19.8.3. Quicksort

Warning

this example is bogus. It is not safe to pass a collectable object into a C procedure when the callback invocation might cause a garbage collection, thus moving the object and invalidating the address stored in the C machine context.

This demonstrates how to use a callback such as the comparator argument to qsort. It is specified in the type signature using -> as a type constructor. (Note that one should probably use the built-in sort routines rather than call out like this; this example is for demonstrating callbacks, not how to sort.)

(define qsort!
  (foreign-procedure "qsort" '(boxed ushort ushort (-> (void* void*) int)) 'void))
(let ((bv (list->vector '(40 10 30 20 1 2 3 4))))
  (qsort! bv 8 4
          (lambda (x y)
            (let ((x (/ (void*-word-ref x 0) 4))
                  (y (/ (void*-word-ref y 0) 4)))
              (- x y))))
  bv)
(let ((bv (list->bytevector '(40 10 30 20 1 2 3 4))))
  (qsort! bv 8 1
          (lambda (x y)
            (let ((x (void*-byte-ref x 0))
                  (y (void*-byte-ref y 0)))
              (- x y))))
  bv)
11.19.8.4. Other examples

The Experimental directory contains several examples of use of the FFI. See in particular the files unix.sch (Unix system calls) and socket.sch (procedures for communicating over sockets).

11.19.9. Higher level layers

The general foreign-function interface functionality described above is powerful but awkward to use in practice. A user might be tempted to hard code values of offsets or constants that are compiler dependent. Also, the FFI will marshall some low-level values such as strings or integers, but other values such as enumerations which could be naturally mapped to sets of symbols are not marshalled since the host environment does not provide the necessary type information to the FFI.

This section documents a collection of libraries to mitigate these and other problems.

11.19.9.1. foreign-ctools

Foreign data access is performed by peeking at manually calculated addresses, but in practice one often needs to inspect fields of C structures, whose offsets are dependant on the application binary interface (ABI) of the host environment. Similarly, C programs often use refer to values via constant macro definitions; since the values of such names are not provided by the object code and Scheme programs do not have a C preprocessor run on them prior to execution, it is difficult to refer to the same value without encoding "magic numbers" into the Scheme source code.

The foreign-ctools library is meant to mitigate problems like the two described above. It provides special forms for introducing global definitions of values typically available at compile-time for a C program. The library assumes the presence of a C compiler (such as cc on Unix systems or cl.exe on Windows systems). The special forms work by dynamically generating, compiling, and running C code at expansion time to determine the desired values of structure offsets or macro constants.

Here is a grammar for the define-c-info form provided by the foreign-ctools library.

<exp>     ::= (define-c-info <c-decl> ... <c-defn> ...)

<c-decl>  ::= (compiler <cc-spec>)
           |  (path <include-path>)
           |  (include <header>)
           |  (include<> <header>)

<cc-spec> ::= cc | cl

<c-defn>  ::= (const <id> <c-type> <c-expr>)
           |  (sizeof <id> <c-type-expr>)
           |  (struct <c-name> <field-clause> ...)
           |  (fields <c-name> <field-clause> ...)
           |  (ifdefconst <id> <c-type> <c-name>)

<c-type>  ::= int | uint | long | ulong

<include-path>
          ::= <string-literal>

<header>  ::= <string-literal>

<field-clause>
          ::= (<offset-id> <c-field>)
           |  (<offset-id> <c-field> <size-id>)

<c-expr>  ::= <string-literal>

<c-type-expr>
          ::= <string-literal>

<c-name>  ::= <string-literal>

<c-field> ::= <string-literal>

Syntax define-c-info

(define-c-info <c-decl> … <c-defn> …)

The <c-decl> clauses of define-c-info control how header files are processed. The compiler clause selects between cc (the default UNIX system compiler) and cl (the compiler included with Microsoft's Windows SDK). The path clause adds a directory to search when looking for header files. The include and include<> clauses indicate header files to include when executing the <c-defn> clauses; the two variants correspond to the quoted and bracketed forms of the C preprocessor's #include directive.

The <c-defn> clauses bind identifiers. A (const x t "ae") clause binds x to the integer value of ae according to the C language; ae can be any C arithmetic expression that evaluates to a value of type t. (The expected usage is for ae to be an expression that the C preprocessor expands to an arithmetic expression.)

The remaining clauses provide similar functionality:

  • (sizeof x "te") binds x to the size occupied by values of type te, where te is any C type expression.
  • (struct "cn" … (x "cf" y) …) binds x to the offset from the start of a structure of type struct cn to its cf field, and binds y, if present, to the field's size. A fields clause is similar, but it applies to structures of type cn rather than struct cn.
  • (ifdefconst x t "cn") binds x to the value of cn if cn is defined; x is otherwise bound to Larceny's unspecified value.
11.19.9.2. foreign-sugar

The foreign-procedure function is sufficient to link in dynamically loaded C procedures, but it can be annoying to use when there are many procedures to define that all follow a regular pattern where one could infer a mapping between Scheme identifiers and C function names.

For example, some libraries follow a naming convention where a words within a name are separated by underscores; such functions could be immediately mapped to Scheme names where the underscores have been replaced by dashes.

The foreign-sugar library provides a special form, define-foreign, which gives the user a syntax for defining foreign functions using a syntax where one provides only the Scheme name, the argument types, and the return type. The define-foreign form then attempts to infer what C function the name was meant to refer to.

Syntax define-foreign

(define-foreign (name arg-type …) result-type)

Note

There is other functionality provided allowing the user to introduce new rules for inferring C function names, but they are undocumented because they will probably have to change when we switch to an R6RS macro expander.

11.19.9.3. foreign-stdlib

Procedure stdlib/malloc

(stdlib/malloc rtd [ctor]) => procedure

Given a record extension of void*-rt, returns an allocator that uses the C malloc procedure to allocate instances of such an object. Note that the client is responsible for eventually freeing such objects with stdlib/free.

Procedure stdlib/free

(stdlib/free void*-obj)

Frees objects produced by allocators returned from stdlib/malloc.

Procedure ffi-install-void*-subtype

(ffi-install-void*-subtype rtd) => rtd

(ffi-install-void*-subtype string [parent-rtd]) => rtd

(ffi-install-void*-subtype symbol [parent-rtd]) => rtd

ffi-install-void*-subtype extends the core attribute registry with a new primitive entry for subtype. The parent-rtd argument should be a subtype of void*-rt and defaults to void*-rt. In the case of the symbol or string inputs, the procedure constructs a new record type subtyping the parent argument. In the case of the rtd input, the rtd record type must extend void*-rt. ffi-install-void*-subtype returns the subtype record type.

The returned record type represents a tagged wrapped C pointer, allowing one to encode type hierarchies.

Procedure establish-void*-subhierarchy!

(establish-void*-subhierarchy! symbol-tree) => unspecified

establish-void*-subhierarchy! is a convenience function for constructing large object hierarchies. It descends the symbol-tree, creates a record type descriptor for each symbol (where the root of the tree has the parent void*-rt), and invokes ffi-install-void*-subtype on all of the introduced types.

Type char* extends void* Procedure string->char*

(string->char* string) => char*

Procedure char*-strlen

(char*-strlen char*) => fixnum

Procedure char*->string

(char*->string char*) => string

(char*->string char* len) => string

Procedure call-with-char*

(call-with-char* string string-function) => value

Type char** extends void* Procedure call-with-char**

(call-with-char** string-vector function) => value

Type int* extends void* Procedure call-with-int*

(call-with-int* fixnum-vector function) => value

Type short* extends void* Procedure call-with-short*

(call-with-short* fixnum-vector function) => value

Type double* extends void* Procedure call-with-double*

(call-with-double* num-vector function) => value

FIXME: (There are other functions, but I want to test and document the ones above first…)

11.19.9.4. foreign-cstructs

The foreign-cstructs library provides a more direct interface to C structures. It provides the define-c-struct special form. This form is layered on top of define-c-info; the latter provides the structure field offsets and sizes used to generate constructors (which produce appropriately sized bytevectors, not record instances). The define-c-struct form combines these with marshaling and unmarshaling procedures to provide high-level access to a structure.

The grammar for the define-c-struct form is presented below.

<exp>    ::= (define-c-struct (<struct-type> <ctor-id> <c-decl> ...)
                <field-clause> ...)

<field-clause>
         ::= (<c-field> <getter>) | (<c-field> <getter> <setter>)

<getter> ::= (<id>) | (<id> <unmarshal>)

<setter> ::= (<id>) | (<id> <marshal>)

<marshal> ::= <ffi-attr-symbol> | <marshal-proc-exp>

<unmarshal> ::= <ffi-attr-symbol> | <unmarshal-proc-exp>

<struct-type> ::= <string-literal>
11.19.9.5. foreign-cenums

This library provides the special forms define-c-enum and define-c-enum-set, which associate the identifiers of a C enum type declaration with the integer values they denote.

The define-c-enum form describes enums encoding a discriminated sum; define-c-enum-set describes bitmasks, mapping them to R6RS enum-sets in Scheme.

The (define-c-enum en (<c-decl> …) (x "cn") …) form adds the en FFI attribute. The attribute marshals each symbol x to the integer value that cn denotes in C; unmarshaling does the inverse translation.

The (define-c-enum-set ens (<c-decl> …) (x "cn") …) form binds ens to an R6RS enum-set constructor with universe resulting from (make-enumeration '(x …)); it also adds the ens FFI attribute. The attribute marshals an enum-set s constructed by ens to the corresponding bitmask in C (that is, the integer one would get by logically or'ing all cn such that the corresponding x is in s). Unmarshaling attempts to do the inverse translation.

The grammar for the two forms is presented below.

<exp> ::= (define-c-enum <enum-id> (<c-decl> ...)
            (<id> <c-name>) ...)

<exp> ::= (define-c-enum-set <enum-id> (<c-decl> ...)
            (<id> <c-name>) ...)

<enum-id> ::= <id>

12. Debugging

Larceny's debugging functionality is implemented in Scheme, using some of Larceny's extensions for catching exceptions and inspecting the continuation structure.

12.1. Entering the debugger

When Larceny detects an error or a keyboard interrupt, or when it hits a breakpoint, it signals the condition by printing a message on the console. Larceny then enters the debugger, which signals its presence with a short banner and the debugger prompt:

Entering debugger; type "?" for help.
debug>

You can also re-enter the debugger by evaluating (debug).

12.2. Debugger commands

The debugger is still in an immature state. The following commands are available (commands can be typed in upper or lower case):

B Print backtrace of continuation.

C Print source code of procedure, if available.

D Move down to previous (earlier) activation record.

E n expr Expr is evaluated in the current interaction environment and must evaluate to a procedure. It is passed the contents of slot n from the current activation record, and the result, if not unspecified, is printed.

E (n1 … nk) expr Expr is evaluated in the current interaction environment and must evaluate to a procedure. It is passed the contents of slots n1 through nk from the current activation record, and the result, if not unspecified, is printed.

I n Inspect the procedure in slot n of the current activation record.

I @_ Inspect the active procedure.

Q Quit the debugger and abort the computation.

R Return from the debugger and continue the computation.

S Summarize the contents of the current activation record.

U Up to the next (later) activation record.

X Examine the contents of the current activation record.

The B, D, and U commands can be prefixed with a count, for example, 5 U moves up five activation records, and 10 B displays the next 10 activation records. The default for B is to display all the activations; the default count for D and U is 1.

12.3. Breakpoints

You can set breakpoints either in program text with the break primitive or interactively at the start of a procedure with the break-entry procedure. When Larceny reaches a breakpoint during execution, the program is suspended and the debugger is entered to allow you to inspect the program.

Procedure larceny-break

(larceny-break )

Invokes the breakpoint handler.

Procedure break-entry

(break-entry procedure)

Set a breakpoint at the start of the procedure.

Procedure unbreak

(unbreak procedure …)

(unbreak )

In the first form, remove any breakpoint set by break-entry at the start of the procedure_s. In the second form, remove all breakpoints set by _break-entry.

12.4. Tracing

Procedure trace-entry

(trace-entry procedure)

Set a trace point on entry to the procedure, removing any other trace points on the procedure. When the procedure is entered, information about the call is printed on the console: the name of the procedure and the actual arguments.

Procedure trace-exit

(trace-exit procedure)

Set a trace point on exit from the procedure, removing any other trace points on the procedure. When the procedure returns, information about the return is printed on the console: the name of the procedure and the returned values.

Note that trace-exit destroys the tail recursion properties of the instrumented procedure. Where the procedure would normally "return" by tail-calling another procedure, the instrumented procedure will call the other procedure by a non-tail call and then return, at which point the procedure name and return values will be printed. Thus use of trace-exit may destroy the space properties of the program.

Procedure trace

(trace procedure)

Set trace points on procedure both at entry and exit.

Procedure untrace

(untrace procedure …)

(untrace )

The first form removes any trace points from the specified procedures. The second form removes all untrace points.

12.5. Other functionality

Parameter break-handler

The value of break-handler is a procedure that is called when a breakpoint or tracepoint is encountered. The procedure takes two arguments: the procedure in which the breakpoint was set, and the byte offset within the procedure's code vector of the breakpoint.

13. Standards

13.1. Scheme standards

IEEE Standard 1178-1990, "IEEE Standard for the Scheme Programming Language", IEEE, 1991. ISBN 1-55937-125-0. May be ordered from IEEE by calling 1-800-678-IEEE or 908-981-1393 or writing IEEE Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, and using order number SH14209.

Richard Kelsey, William Clinger, and Jonathan Rees [editors]. Revised^5 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme. Journal of Higher Order and Symbolic Computation, 11(1), 1998, pages 7-105. Also appears in ACM SIGPLAN Notices 33(9), September 1998. Available online in various formats.

Michael Sperber, R Kent Dybvig, Matthew Flatt, and Anton van Straaten [editors]. Revised^6 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme, 2007.

Alex Shinn, John Cowan, and Arthur A Gleckler [editors]. Revised^7 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme, 2013.

13.2. Other relevant standards

IEEE Standard 754-1985, "IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic", IEEE, 1985.

IEEE Standard 754-2008, "IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic", IEEE, 2008. (Revision of IEEE Std 754-1985 began in 2000. The IEEE Microprocessor Standards Committee (MSC) accepted a candidate draft on 9 October 2006. The candidate draft 1.2.6 was approved by 79% of 70 votes, which exceeded the required supermajority of 75%. Because there were negative votes and several hundred comments, however, a revised draft 1.3.0 was prepared and approved by 84% of 73 votes. Since there were over a hundred comments on the second candidate draft as well, a third candidate draft 1.4.0 was prepared and another vote taken in April 2007. After a total of eight ballots, with the last four being approved by more than 90% of the voters, the Ballot Review Committee decided in May 2008 that maximum possible timely consensus has been obtained, and the consensus draft was submitted to IEEE-SA RevCom. IEEE-754-2008 was approved on 12 June 2008.)

The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard.

Index

A

append!, Pairs and Lists

B

break-entry, Breakpoints
break-handler, Other functionality

C

call-with-char*, foreign-stdlib
call-with-char**, foreign-stdlib
call-with-double*, foreign-stdlib
call-with-int*, foreign-stdlib
call-with-short*, foreign-stdlib
case-sensitive?, Lexical parameters
char*->string, foreign-stdlib
char*-strlen, foreign-stdlib
close-open-files, Input, Output, and Files
collect, System Control and Performance Measurement
command-line-arguments, Operating System Interface
compile-file, Compiling R5RS source files
compile-library, Compiler
compile-stale-libraries, Compiler
compiler-switches, Compiler
console-input-port, Input, Output, and Files
console-input-port-factory, Input, Output, and Files
console-output-port, Input, Output, and Files
console-output-port-factory, Input, Output, and Files
current-input-port, Input, Output, and Files
current-output-port, Input, Output, and Files
current-require-path, Mapping library names to files (R5RS)

E

eof-object, Input, Output, and Files
equal-hash, Hash functions
establish-void*-subhierarchy!, foreign-stdlib
every?, Pairs and Lists

F

ffi-add-attribute-core-entry!, Extending the Core Attribute Registry
ffi-install-void*-subtype, foreign-stdlib
file-exists?, Input, Output, and Files
file-modification-time, Input, Output, and Files
fixnum?, Fixnum primitives
flush-output-port, Input, Output, and Files
foreign-file, Procedures
foreign-null-pointer, Procedures
foreign-null-pointer?, Procedures
foreign-procedure, Procedures
fx*, Fixnum primitives
fx+, Fixnum primitives
fx-, Fixnum primitives
fx<, Fixnum primitives
fx<=, Fixnum primitives
fx=, Fixnum primitives
fx>, Fixnum primitives
fx>=, Fixnum primitives
fxlogand, Fixnum primitives
fxlogior, Fixnum primitives
fxlognot, Fixnum primitives
fxlogxor, Fixnum primitives
fxlsh, Fixnum primitives
fxnegative?, Fixnum primitives
fxpositive?, Fixnum primitives
fxrsha, Fixnum primitives
fxrshl, Fixnum primitives
fxzero?, Fixnum primitives
fx—, Fixnum primitives

H

hashtable-clear!, Hash tables
hashtable-contains?, Hash tables
hashtable-copy, Hash tables
hashtable-fetch, Hash tables
hashtable-for-each, Hash tables
hashtable-get, Hash tables
hashtable-map, Hash tables
hashtable-put!, Hash tables
hashtable-remove!, Hash tables
hashtable-size, Hash tables

L

larceny-break, Breakpoints
last-pair, Pairs and Lists
list-copy, Pairs and Lists
load, Load

M

major-gc-counter, System Control and Performance Measurement
make-bytevector, Bytevectors
make-oldstyle-hashtable, Hash tables
make-parameter, Parameters
make-record-type, Specification
make-rtd, Procedural layer
memstats, System Control and Performance Measurement
most-negative-fixnum, Fixnum primitives
most-positive-fixnum, Fixnum primitives

O

object-hash, Hash functions
oblist, Symbols
oblist-set!, Symbols
open-input-string, Input, Output, and Files
open-output-string, Input, Output, and Files

P

peek-bytes, Raw memory access
poke-bytes, Raw memory access
port-name, Input, Output, and Files
port-position, Input, Output, and Files
port?, Input, Output, and Files
procedure-arity, Procedures
procedure-copy, Procedures
procedure-documentation-string, Procedures
procedure-environment, Procedures
procedure-expression, Procedures
procedure-name, Procedures
procedure-source-file, Procedures
procedure-source-position, Procedures
putprop, Property Lists

R

random, Numbers
read-larceny-weirdness?, Lexical parameters
read-r6rs-flags?, Lexical parameters
read-r6rs-weirdness?, Lexical parameters
read-r7rs-weirdness?, Lexical parameters
read-traditional-weirdness?, Lexical parameters
record-accessor, Specification
record-constructor, Specification
record-predicate, Specification
record-rtd, Inspection layer
record-type-descriptor, Specification
record-type-extends?, Specification
record-type-field-names, Specification
record-type-name, Specification
record-type-parent, Specification
record-updater, Specification
record?, Inspection layer
remove, Pairs and Lists
remove!, Pairs and Lists
remp, Pairs and Lists
remp!, Pairs and Lists
remprop, Property Lists
remq, Pairs and Lists
remq!, Pairs and Lists
remv, Pairs and Lists
remv!, Pairs and Lists
rename-file, Input, Output, and Files
require, Mapping library names to files (R5RS)
reset-output-string, Input, Output, and Files
reverse!, Pairs and Lists
rtd-accessor, Procedural layer
rtd-all-field-names, Inspection layer
rtd-constructor, Procedural layer
rtd-field-mutable?, Inspection layer
rtd-field-names, Inspection layer
rtd-mutator, Procedural layer
rtd-name, Inspection layer
rtd-parent, Inspection layer
rtd-predicate, Procedural layer
rtd-printer, Records printer
rtd-printer-set!, Records printer
rtd?, Procedural layer
run-benchmark, System Control and Performance Measurement
run-with-stats, System Control and Performance Measurement

T

trace, Tracing
trace-entry, Tracing
trace-exit, Tracing

U

unbreak, Breakpoints
untrace, Tracing

V

vector-copy, Vectors
void*->address, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-byte-ref, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-byte-set!, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-double-ref, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-double-set!, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-void*-ref, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-void*-set!, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-word-ref, void* Type Hierarchies
void*-word-set!, void* Type Hierarchies
void*?, void* Type Hierarchies

W

with-input-from-port, Input, Output, and Files
with-output-to-port, Input, Output, and Files